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  1. Mia thia mou enas sinergatis,ploutwnio?

    Katarxin pou to vrethike to ploutwnio,apta plousia kitasmata,i apta pirinika mas ergostasia?

    ΑπάντησηΔιαγραφή
  2. GREECE,' an ancient geographical area, and a modern kingdom more or less corresponding thereto, situated at the south-eastern extremity of Europe and forming the most southerly portion of the Balkan Peninsula. The modern kingdom is bounded on the N. by European Turkey and on the E., S. and W. by the Aegean, Mediterranean and Ionian seas. The name Graecia, which was more or less vaguely given to the ancient country by the Romans, seems not to have been employed by any native writer before Aristotle; it was apparently derived 1 See also Greek Art, Greek Language, Greek Law, Greek Literature, Greek Religion.

    by the Romans from the Illyrians, who applied the name of an Epirote tribe (Fpatko, Graeci) to all their southern neighbours. The names Hellas, Hellenes ("EXXas, "EX)op e), by which the ancient Greeks called their country and their race, and which are still employed by the modern Greeks, originally designated a small district in Phthiotis in Thessaly and its inhabitants, who gradually spread over the lands south of the Cambunian mountains. The name Hellenes was not universally applied to the Greek race until the post-Homeric epoch (Thucyd. i. 3).

    I. Geography And Statistics The ancient Greeks had a somewhat vague conception of the northern limits of Hellas. Thessaly was generally included and Epirus excluded; some writers included some of the southern cantons of Epirus, while others excluded not a n only all that country but Aetolia and Acarnania. Greece. Generally speaking, the confines of Hellas in the age of its greatest distinction were represented by a line drawn from the northern shore of the Ambracian Gulf on the W. to the mouth of the Peneus on the E. Macedonia and Thrace were regarded as outside the pale of Hellenic civilization till 386 B.C., when after his conquest of Thessaly and Phocis, Philip of Macedon obtained a seat in the Amphictyonic Council. In another sense, however, the name Hellas expressed an ethnological rather than a geographical unity; it denoted every country inhabited by Hellenes. It thus embraced all the Greek settlements on the coasts and islands of the Mediterranean, on the shores of the Hellespont, the Bosporus and the Black Sea. Nevertheless, the Greek peninsula within the limits described above, together with the adjacent islands, was always regarded as Hellas par excellence. The continental area of Hellas proper was no greater than that of the modern Greek kingdom, which comprises but a small portion of the territories actually occupied by the Greek race. The Greeks have always been a maritime people, and the real centre of the national life is now, as in antiquity, the Aegean Sea or Archipelago. Thickly studded with islands and bordered by deeply indented coasts with sheltered creeks and harbours, the Aegean in the earliest days of navigation invited the enterprise of the mariner; its shores, both European and Asiatic, became covered with Greek settlements and its islands, together with Crete and Cyprus, became Greek. True to their maritime instincts, the Greeks rarely advanced inland to any distance from the sea; the coasts of Macedonia, Thrace and Asia Minor are still mainly Greek, but, except for some isolated colonies, the hinterland in each case lies outside the limits of the race. Continental Greece is divided by its mountain ranges into a number of natural cantons; the existence of physical barriers tended in the earliest times to the growth of isolated political communities, and in the epoch of its ancient independence the country was occupied by seventeen separate states, none of them larger than an ordinary English county. These states, which are noticed separately, were: Thessaly, in northern Greece; Acarnania, Aetolia, Locris, Doris, Phocis, Megaris, Boeotia and Attica in central Greece; and Corinthia, Sicyonia, Achaea, Elis, Messenia, Laconia, Argolis and Arcadia in the Peloponnesus.

    Modern Greece, which (including the adjacent islands) extends from 35° 50' to 39° 54' N. and from 19° 20' to 26° 15' E., comprises all the area formerly occupied by these states. Under the arrangement concluded at Constantinople on the 21st of July 1832 between Great Britain, France, Russia and Turkey, the northern boundary of Greece was drawn from the Gulf of Arta (Sinus Ambracius) to the Gulf of Volo (S. Pagasaeus), the line keeping to the crest of the Othrys range. Thessaly and part of Acarnania were thus left to Turkey. The island of Euboea, the Cyclades and the northern Sporades were added to the new kingdom. In 1864 the Ionian Islands were ceded by Great Britain to Greece. In 1880 the Conference of Berlin proposed a new frontier, which transferred to Greece not only Thessaly but a considerable portion of southern Epirus, extending to the river Kalamas. This, however, was rejected by Turkey, and the existing boundary was traced in 1881. Starting from the Aegean coast at a point xII. 14 a near Platamona, between Mount Olympus and the mouth of the Salambria (Peneus), the line passes over the heights of Kritiri and Zygos (Pindus) and descends the course of the river Arta to its mouth. After the war of 1897 Greece restored to Turkey some strategical points on the frontier possessing no geographical importance. The greatest length of Greece is about 250 m., the greatest breadth 180 m. The country is generally divided into five parts, which are indicated by its natural features: - (i.) Northern Greece, which extends northwards from Mount Othrys and the gulfs of Zeitun(Lamia)and Arta to the Cambunian Mountains, and comprises Thessaly and a small portion of Epirus; (ii.) Central Greece, extending from the southern limits of Northern Greece to the gulfs of Corinth and Aegina; (iii.) the peninsula of the Peloponnesus or Morea, attached to the mainland by the Isthmus of Corinth; (iv.) the Ionian Islands on the west coasts of Epirus and Greece; (v.) The islands of the Aegean Sea, including Euboea, the Cyclades and the northern Sporades.

    In the complexity of its contour and the variety of its natural features Greece surpasses every country in Europe, as Europe sur- lca/ passes every continent in the world. The broken character of its coast-line is unique; except a few districts in Thes saly no part of the country is more than 50 m. from the sea. Although the area of Greece is considerably smaller than that of Portugal, its coast-line is greater than that of Spain and Portugal together. The mainland is penetrated by numerous gulfs and inlets, and the adjoining seas are studded with islands. Another characteristic is the number and complexity of the mountain chains, which traverse every part of the country and which, together with their ramifications, cover four-fifths of its surface. The mountain-chains interlace, the interstices forming small enclosed basins, such as the plain of Boeotia and the plateau of Arcadia; the only plain of any extent is that of Thessaly. The mountains project into the sea, forming peninsulas, and sometimes reappearing in rows or groups of islands; they descend abruptly to the coast or are separated from it by small alluvial plains. The portions of the country suitable for human colonization were thus isolated one from the other, but as a rule possessed easy access to the sea. The earliest settlements were generally situated on or around some rocky elevation, which dominated the surrounding plain and was suitable for fortification as a citadel or acropolis; owing to the danger of piratical attacks they were usually at some little distance from the sea, but in the vicinity of a natural harbour. The physical features of the country played an important part in moulding the character of its inhabitants. Protected against foreign invasion by the mountain barriers and to a great extent cut off from mutual intercourse except by sea, the ancient Greek communities developed a marked individuality and a strong sentiment of local patriotism; their inhabitants were both mountaineers and mariners; they possessed the love of country, the vigour and the courage which are always found in highlanders, together with the spirit of adventure, the versatility and the passion for freedom characteristic of a seafaring people. The great variety of natural products as well as the facility of maritime communication tended to the early growth of commercial enterprise, while the peculiar beauty of the scenery, though little dwelt upon in ancient literature, undoubtedly quickened the poetic and artistic instincts of the race. The effects of physical environment are no less noticeable among the modern Greeks. The rural populations of Attica and Boeotia; though descended from Albanian colonists in the middle ages, display the same contrast in character which marked the inhabitants of those regions in ancient times.

    In its general aspect the country presents a series of striking and interesting contrasts. Fertile tracts covered with vineyards, olive groves, corn-fields or forests display themselves in close proximity with rugged heights and rocky precipices; the landscape is never monotonous; its outlines are graceful, and its colouring, owing to the clearness of the air, is at once brilliant and delicate, while the sea, in most instances, adds a picturesque feature, enhancing the charm and variety of the scenery.

    The ruling feature in the mountain system of northern Greece is the great chain of Pindus, which, extending southwards from the Moun- lofty Shar Dagh (Skardos) near Uskub, forms the back bone of the Balkan peninsula. Reaching the frontier of Greece a little S. of lat. 40°, the Pindus range is intersected by the Cambunian Mountains running E. and W.; the eastern branch, which forms the northern boundary of Thessaly, extends to the Gulf of Salonica and culminates in Mount Olympus (9754 ft.) a little to the N. of the Greek frontier; then bending to the S.E. it follows the coast-line, forming a rampart between the Thessalian plain and the sea; the barrier is severed at one point only where the river Salambria (anc. Peneus) finds an exit through the narrow defile of Tempe. South of Tempe the mountain ridge, known as the Mavro Vouno, connects the pyramidal Kissovo (anc. Ossa, 6400 ft.) with Plessidi (anc. Pelion, 5310 ft.); it is prolonged in the Magnesian peninsula, which separates the Gulf of Volo from the Aegean, and is continued by the mountains of Euboea (highest summits, Dirphys, 5725 ft., and Ocha, 4830 ft.) and by the islands of Andros and Tenos. West of Pindus, the Cambunian Mountains are continued by several ridges which traverse Epirus from north to south, enclosing the plain and lake of Iannina; the most westerly of these, projecting into the Adriatic, forms the Acroceraunian promontory terminating in Cape Glossa. The principal pass through the Cambunian Mountains is that of Meluna, through which runs the carriage-road connecting the town of Elassona in Macedonia with Larissa, the capital of Thessaly; there are horse-paths at Reveni and elsewhere. The central chain of Pindus at the point where it is intersected by the Cambunian Mountains forms the mass of Zygos (anc. Lacmon, 7113 ft.) through which a horse-path connects the town of Metzovo with Kalabaka in Thessaly; on the declivity immediately N. of Kalabaka are a series of rocky pinnacles on which a number of monasteries are perched. Trending to the S., the Pindus chain terminates in the conical Mount Velouchi (anc. Tymphrestus, 7609 ft.) in the heart of the mountainous region of northern Greece. From this centre-point a number of mountains radiate in all directions. To the E. runs the chain of Helloro (anc. Othrys; highest summit, Hagios Elias, 5558 ft.) separating the plain of Thessaly from the valley of the Spercheios and traversed by the Phourka pass (2789 ft.); to the S.E. is Mount Katavothra (anc. Oeta, 7080 ft.) extending to the southern shore of the Gulf of Lamia at Thermopylae; to the S.E., S. and S.W. are the mountains of Aetolia and Acarnania. The Aetolian group, which may be regarded as the direct continuation of the Pindus range, includes Kiona (8240 ft.), the highest mountain in Greece, and Vardusi (anc. Korax, 8190 ft.). The mountains of Acarnania with `T 1 ' I X Kopeoi (5215 ft.) rise to the W. of the valley of the Aspropotamo (anc. Achelous). The Aetolian Mountains are prolonged to the S.E. by the double-crested Liakoura (anc. Parnassus; 8064 ft.) in Phocis; by Palaeo Vouno (anc. Helicon, 5738 ft.) and Elateas (anc. Cithaeron, 4626 ft.) respectively W. and S. of the Boeotian plain; and by the mountains of Attica, - Ozea (anc. Parnes, 4626 ft.), Mendeli (anc. Pentelicus or Brilessos, 3639 ft.), Trellovouno (anc. Hymettus, 3369 ft.), and Keratia (2136 ft.) - terminating in the promontory of Sunium, but reappearing in the islands of Ceos, Cythnos, Seriphos and Siphnos. South of Cithaeron are Patera in Megaris (3583 ft.) and Makri Plagi (anc. Geraneia, 4495 ft.) overlooking the Isthmus of Corinth.

    The mountains of the Morea, grouped around the elevated central plateau of Arcadia, form an independent system with ramifications extending through the Argolid peninsula on the E. and the three southern promontories of Malea, Taenaron and Acritas. At the eastern end of the northern chain, separating Arcadia from the Gulf of Corinth, is Ziria (anc. Cyllene, 7789 ft.); it forms a counterpart to Parnassus on the opposite side of the gulf. A little to the W. is Chelmos (anc. Aroania, 7725 ft.); farther W., Olonos (anc. Erymanthus, 7297 ft.) and Voidia (anc. Panachaicon, 6322 ft.) overlooking the Gulf of Patras. The highest summit in the Argolid peninsula is Hagios Elias (anc. Arachnaeon, 3930 ft.). The series of heights forming the eastern rampart of Arcadia, including Artemision (5814 ft.) and Ktenia (5246 ft.) is continued to the S. by the Malevo range (anc. Parnon, highest summit 6365 ft.) which extends into the peninsula of Malea and reappears in the island of Cerigo. Separated from Parnon by the Eurotas valley to the W., the chain of Taygetus (mod. Pentedaktylon; highest summit Hagios Elias, 7874 ft., the culminating point of the Morea) forms a barrier between the plains of Laconia and Messenia; it is traversed by the Langada pass leading from Sparta to Kalamata. The range is prolonged to the S. through the arid district of Maina and terminates in Cape Matapan (anc. Taenarum). The mountains of western Arcadia are less lofty and of a less marked type; they include Hagios Petros (4777 ft.) and Palaeocastro (anc. Pholoe, 2257 ft.) N. of the Alpheus valley, Diaphorti (anc. Lycaeus, 4660 ft.), the haunt of Pan, and Nomia (4554 ft.) W. of the plain of Megalopolis. Farther south, the mountains of western Messenia form a detached group (Varvara, 4003 ft.; Mathia, 3140 ft.) extending to Cape Gallo (anc. Acritas) and the Oenussae Islands. In.central Arcadia are Apanokrapa (anc. Maenalus, also sacred to Pan) and Roudia (5072 ft.); the Taygetus chain forms the southern continuation of these mountains.

    The more noteworthy fortified heights of ancient Greece were the Acrocorinthus, the citadel of Corinth (1885 ft.); Ithome (2631 ft.) at Messene; Larissa (950 ft.) at Argos; the Acropolis of Mycenae (910 ft.); Tiryns (60 ft.) near Nauplia, which also possessed its own citadel, the Palamidhi or Acro-nauplia (705 ft.); the Acropolis of Athens (300 ft. above the mean level of the city and 512 ft. above the sea), and the Cadmea of Thebes (715 ft.).

    Greece has few rivers; most of these are small, rapid and turbid, as might be expected from the mountainous configuration of the country. They are either perennial rivers or torrents, the white beds /livers. of the latter being dry in summer, and only filled with water after the autumn rains. The chief rivers (none ofwhich is navigable) are the Salambria (Peneus) in Thessaly, the Mavropotamo (Cephisus) in Phocis, the Hellada (Spercheios) in Phthiotis, the Aspropotamo (Achelous) in Aetolia, and the Ruphia (Alpheus) and Vasiliko (Eurotas) in the Morea. Of the famous rivers of Athens, the one, the Ilissus, is onl / a chain of pools all summer, and the other, the Cephisus, though never absolutely dry, does not reach the sea, being drawn off in numerous artificial channels to irrigate the neighbouring olive groves. A frequent peculiarity of the Greek rivers is their sudden disappearance in subterranean chasms and reappearance on the surface again, such as gave rise to the fabled course of the Alpheus under the sea, and its emergence in the fountain of Arethusa in Syracuse. Some of these chasms - " Katavothras "- are merely sieves with herbage and gravel in the bottom, but others are large caverns through which the course of the river may sometimes be followed. Floods are frequent, especially in autumn, and natural fountains abound and gush out even from the tops of the hills. Aganippe rises high up among the peaks of Helicon, and Peirene flows from the summit of Acrocorinthus. The only noteworthy cascade, however, is that of the Styx in Arcadia, which has a fall of 500 ft. During part of the year it is lost in snow, and it is at all times almost inaccessible. Lakes are numerous, but few are of considerable size, and many merely marshes in summer. The largest are Karla (Boebels) in Thessaly, Trichonis in Aetolia, Copais in Boeotia, Pheneus and Stymphalus in Arcadia.

    The valleys are generally narrow, and the plains small in extent, deep basins walled in among the hills or more free at the mouths of the rivers. The principal plains are those of Thessaly, Boeotia, Messenia, Argos, Elis and Marathon. The bottom of these plains consists of an alluvial soil, the most fertile in Greece. In some of the mountainous regions, especially in the Morea, are extensive table-lands. The plain of Mantinea is 2000 ft. high, and the upland district of Sciritis, between Sparta and Tegea, is in some parts 3000 ft.

    Strabo said that the guiding thing in the geography of Greece was the sea, which presses in upon it at all parts with a thousand Coast. arms. From the Gulf of Arta on the one side to the Gulf of Volo on the other the coast is indented with a succession of natural bays and gulfs. The most important are the Gulfs of Aegina (Saronicus) and Lepanto (Corinthiacus), which separate the Morea from the northern mainland of Greece, - the first an inlet of the Aegean, the second of the Ionian Sea, - and are now connected by a canal cut through the high land of the narrow Isthmus of Corinth (32 m. wide). The outer portion of the Gulf of Lepanto is called the Gulf of Patras, and the inner part the Bay of Corinth; a narrow inlet on the north side of the same gulf, called the Bay of Salona or Itea, penetrates northwards into Phocis so far that it is within 24 geographical miles of the Gulf of Zeitun on the north-east coast. The width of the entrance to the gulf of Lepanto is subject to singular changes, which are ascribed to the formation of alluvial deposits by certain marine currents, and their removal again by others. At the time of the Peloponnesian war this channel was 1200 yds. broad; in the time of Strabo it was only 850; and in our own day it has again increased to 2200. On the coast of the Morea there are several large gulfs, that of Arcadia (Cyparissius) on the west, Kalamata (Messeniacus) and Kolokythia (Laconicus) on the south and Nauplia (Argolicus) on the east. Between Euboea and the mainland lie the channels of Trikeri, Talanti (Euboicum Mare) and Egripo; the latter two are connected by the strait of Egripo (Euripus). This strait, which is spanned by a swing-bridge, is about 180 ft. wide, and is remarkable for the unexplained eccentricity of its tide, which has puzzled ancients and moderns alike. The current runs at the average speed of 5m. an hour, but continues only for a short time in one direction, changing its course, it is said, ten or twelve times in a day; it is sometimes very violent.

    There are no volcanoes on the mainland of Greece, but everywhere traces of volcanic action and frequently visitations of earthquakes, for it lies near a centre of volcanic agency, the island of Santorin, which has been within recent years in a state of eruption. There is an extinct crater at Mount Laphystium (Granitsa) in Boeotia. The mountain of Methane, on the coast of Argolis, was produced by a volcanic eruption in 282 B.C. Earthquakes laid Thebes in ruins in 1853, destroyed every house in Corinth in 1858, filled up the Castalian spring in 1870, devastated Zante in 1893 and the district of Atalanta in 1894. There are hot springs at Thermopylae and other places, which are used for sanitary purposes. Various parts of the coast exhibit indications of upheaval within historical times. On the coast of Elis four rocky islets are now joined to the land, which were separate from it in the days of ancient Greece. There are traces of earlier sea-beaches at Corinth, and on the coast of the Morea, and at the mouth of the Hellada. The land has gained so much that the pass of Thermopylae which was extremely narrow in the time of Leonidas and his three hundred, is now wide enough for the motions of a whole army. (J. D. B.) Structurally, Greece may be divided into two regions, an eastern and a western. The former includes Thessaly, Boeotia, the island of Euboea, the isthmus of Corinth, and the peninsula of Argolis, and, throughout, the strike of the beds is nearly from west to east. The western region includes the Pindus and all the parallel ranges, and the whole of the Peloponnesus excepting Argolis. Here the folds which affect the Mesozoic and early Tertiary strata run approximately from N.N.W. to S.S.E.

    Up to the close of the 19th century the greater part of Greece was believed to be formed of Cretaceous rocks, but later researches have shown that the supposed Cretaceous beds include a variety of geological horizons. The geological sequence begins with crystalline schists and limestones, followed by Palaeozoic, Triassic and Liassic rocks. The oldest beds which hitherto have yielded fossils belong to the Carboniferous System (Fusulina limestone of Euboea). Following upon these older beds are the great limestone masses which cover most of the eastern region, and which are now known to include Jurassic, Tithonian, Lower and Upper Cretaceous and Eocene beds. In the Pindus and the Peloponnesus these beds are overlaid by a series of shales and platy limestones (Olonos Limestone of the Peloponnesus), which were formerly supposed to be of Tertiary age. It has now been shown, however, that the upper series of limestones has been brought upon the top of the lower by a great overthrust. Triassic fossils have been found in the Olonos Limestone and it is almost certain that other Mesozoic horizons are represented.

    The earth movements which produced the mountain chains of western Greece have folded the Eocene beds and must therefore be of post-Eocene date. The Neogene beds, on the other hand, are not affected by the folds, although by faulting without folding they have in some places been raised to a height of nearly 6000 ft. They lie, however, chiefly along the coast and in the valleys, and consist of marls, conglomerates and sands, sometimes with seams of lignite. The Pikermi deposits, of late Miocene age, are famous for their rich mammalian fauna.

    Although the folding which formed the mountain chains appears to have ceased, Greece is still continually shaken by earthquakes, and these earthquakes are closely connected with the great lines of fracture to which the country owes its outline. Around the narrow gulf which separates the Peloponnesus from the mainland, earthquakes are particularly frequent, and another region which is often shaken is the south-western corner of Greece, the peninsula of Messene.' (P. LA.) The vegetation of Greece in general resembles that of southern Italy while presenting many types common to that of Asia Minor. Owing to the geographical configuration of the peninsula and its mountainous surface the characteristic flora of the Mediterranean regions:is often found in juxtaposition with that of central Europe. In respect to its vegetation the country may be regarded as divided into four zones. In the first, extending from the sea-level to the height of 1500 ft., oranges, olives, dates, almonds, pomegranates, figs and vines flourish, and cotton and tobacco are grown. In the neighbourhood of streams are found the laurel, myrtle, oleander and lentisk, together with the plane and white poplar; the cypress is often a picturesque feature in the landscape, and there is a variety of aromatic plants. The second zone, from 1500 to 3500 ft., is the region of the oak, chestnut and other British trees. In the third, from 3500 to 5500 ft., the beech is the characteristic forest tree; the Abies cephalonica and Pinus pine y now take the place of the Pinus halepensis, which grows everywhere in the lower regions. Above 5500 ft. is the Alpine region, marked by small plants, lichens and mosses. During the short period of spring anemones and other wild flowers enrich the hillsides with magnificent colouring; in June all verdure disappears except in the watered districts and elevated plateaus. The asphodel grows abundantly in the dry rocky soil; aloes, planted in rows, form impenetrable hedges. Medicinal plants are numerous, such as the Inula Helenium, the Mandragora Officinarum, the Colchicum napolitanum and the Helleborus orientalis, which still grows abundantly near Aspraspitia, the ancient Anticyra, at the foot of Parnassus.

    The fauna is similar to that of the other Mediterranean peninsulas, and includes some species found in Asia Minor but not elsewhere in Europe. The lion existed in northern Greece in the time of Aristotle and at an earlier period in the Morea. The bear is still found in the Pindus range. Wolves are common in all the mountainous regions and jackals are numerous in the Morea. Foxes are abundant in all parts of the country; the polecat is found in the woods of Attica and the Morea; the lynx is now rare. The wild boar is common in the mountains of northern Greece, but is almost extinct in the Peloponnesus. The badger, the marten and the weasel are found on the mainland and in the islands. The red deer, the fallow deer and the roe exist in northern Greece, but are becoming scarce. The otter is rare. Hares and rabbits are abundant in many parts of the country, especially in the Cyclades; the two species never occupy the same district, and in the Cyclades some islands (Naxos, Melos, Tenos, &c.) form the exclusive domain of the hares, others (Seriphos, Kimolos, Mykonos, &c.) of the rabbits. In Andros alone a demarcation has been arrived at, the hares retaining the northern and the rabbits the southern portion of the island.

    1 For the Geology of Greece see: M. Neumayr, &c., Denks. k. Akad.Wiss. Wien, math.-nat. Cl. vol. xl. (1880); A. Philippson, Der Peloponnes (Berlin, 1892) and"Beitrage zur Kenntnis der griechischen Inselwelt," Peterm. Mitt., Erganz.-heft No. 134 (1901); R. Lepsius, Geologie von Attika (Berlin, 1893); L. Cayeux, " Phenomenes de charriage dans la Mediterranee orientale," C. R. Acad. Sci. Paris, vol. cxxxvi. (1903) PP. 474-47 6; J. Deprat, " Note preliminaire sur la geologie de l'ile d'Eubee," Bull. Soc. Geol. France, ser. 4, vol. iii. (1903) pp. 229-243, p. vii. and " Note sur la geologie du massif du Pblion et sur l'influence exercee par les massifs archeens sur la tectonique de I'Egeide," ib. vol. iv. (1904), PP. 299-338.


    /POPULATION

    Volcanic action. The chamois is found in the higher mountains, such as Pindus, Parnassus and Tymphrestus. The Cretan agrimi, or wild goat (Capra nubiana, C. aegagrus), found in Antimelos and said to exist in Taygetus, the jackal, the stellion, and the chameleon are among the Asiatic species not found westward of Greece. There is a great variety of birds; of 358 species catalogued two-thirds are migratory. Among the birds of prey, which are very numerous, are the golden and imperial eagle, the yellow vulture, the Gypaetus barbatus, and several species of falcons. The celebrated owl of Athena (Athene noctua) is becoming rare at Athens, but still haunts the Acropolis and the royal garden; it is a small species, found everywhere in Greece. The wild goose and duck, the bustard, partridge, woodcock, snipe, wood-pigeon and turtle-dove are numerous. Immense flocks of quails visit the southern coast of the Morea, where they are captured in great numbers and exported alive. The stork, which was common in the Turkish epoch, has now become scarce. There is a great variety of reptiles, of which sixty-one species have been catalogued. The saurians are all harmless; among them the stellion (Stellio vulgaris), commonly called KpOI &Ialloc in Mykonos and Crete, is believed by Heldreich to have furnished a name to the crocodile of the Nile (Herod. ii. 69). There are five species of tortoise and nine of Amphibia. Of the serpents, which are numerous, there are only two dangerous species, the Vipera ammodytes and the Vipera aspis; the first-named is common. Among the marine fauna are the dolphins, familiar in the legends and sculpture of antiquity; in the clear water of the Aegean they often afford a beautiful spectacle as they play round ships; porpoises and whales are sometimes seen. Sea-fish, of which 246 species have been ascertained, are very abundant.

    The climate of Greece, like that of the other countries of the Balkan peninsula, is liable to greater extremes of heat and cold than prevail Climate. in Spain and Italy; the difference is due to the general contour of the peninsula, which assimilates its climatic conditions to those of the European mainland. Another 'distinctive feature is the great variety of local contrasts; the rapid transitions are the natural effect of diversity in the geographical configuration of the country. Within a few hours it is possible to pass from winter to spring and from spring to summer. The spring is short; the sun is already powerful in March, but the increasing warmth is often checked by cold northerly winds; in many places the corn harvest is cut in May, when southerly winds prevail and the temperature rises rapidly. The great heat of summer is tempered throughout the whole region of the archipelago by the Etesian winds, which blow regularly from the N.E. for forty to fifty days in July and August. This current of cool dry air from the north is due to the vacuum resulting from intense heat in the region of the Sahara. The healthy Etesian winds are generally replaced towards the end of summer by the southerly Libas or sirocco, which, when blowing strongly, resembles the blast from a furnace and is most injurious to health. The sirocco affects, though in a less degree, the other countries of the Balkan peninsula and even Rumania. The mean summer temperature is about 79° Fahr. The autumn is the least healthy season of the year owing to the great increase of humidity, especially in October and November. At the end of October snow reappears on the higher mountains, remaining on the summits till June. The winter is mild, and even in January there are, as a rule, many warm clear days; but the recurrence of biting northerly winds and cold blasts from the mountains, as well as the rapid transitions from heat to cold and the difference in the temperature of sunshine and shade, render the climate somewhat treacherous and unsuitable for invalids. Snow seldom falls in the maritime and lowland districts and frost is rare. The mean winter temperature is from 48° to 55° Fahr. The rainfall varies greatly according to localities; it is greatest in the Ionian Islands (53.34 ins. at Corfu), in Arcadia and in the other mountainous districts, and least on the Aegean littoral and in the Cyclades; in Attica, the driest region in Greece, it is 16-1 ins. The wettest months are November, December and January; the driest July and August, when, except for a few thunder-storms, there is practically no rainfall. The rain generally accompanies southerly or,southwesterly winds. In all the maritime districts the sea breeze greatly modifies the temperature; it beginsabout9 A.M.,attains its maximum force soon after noon, and ceases about an hour after sunset. Greece is renowned for the clearness of its climate; fogs and mists are almost unknown. In most years, however, only four or five days are recorded in which the sky is perfectly cloudless. The natural healthiness of the climate is counteracted in the towns, especially in Athens, by deficient sanitation and by stifling clouds of dust, which propagate infection and are peculiarly hurtful in cases of ophthalmia and pulmonary disease. Malarial fever is endemic in the marshy districts, especially in the autumn.

    The area of the country was 18,341 sq. m. before the acquisition of the Ionian Islands in 1864, 19,381 sq. m. prior to the annexation of Thessaly and part of Epirus in 1881, and Area 2 4,55 2 sq. m. at the census in 1896. If we deduct 152 popula- sq. m. the extent of territory ceded to Turkey after tion. q Y Y the war of 1897, the area of Greece in 1908 would be 24,400 sq. m. Other authorities give 25,164 and 25,136 sq. m.

    as the area prior to the rectification of the frontier in 1898.1 The population in 1896 was 2,433,806, or 99.1 to the sq. m., the population of the territories annexed in 1881 being approximately 350,000; and 2,631, 952 in 1907, or 107.8 to the sq. m. (according to the official estimate of the area), showing an increase of 198,146 or 0 81% per annum, as compared with 1.61% during the period between 1896 and 1889; the diminished increase is mainly due to emigration. The population by sex in 1907 is given as 1,324,942 males and 1,307,010 females (or 50.3% males to 49.6 females). The preponderance of males, which was 52% to 48% females in 1896, has also been reduced by emigration; it is most marked in the northern departments, especially in Larissa. Only in the departments of Arcadia, Eurytania, Corinth, Cephalonia, Lacedaemon, Laconia, Phocis, Argolis and in the Cyclades, is the female population in excess of the male.

    Neither the census of 1896 nor that of 1889 gave any classification by professions, religion or language. The following figures, which are only approximate, were derived from unofficial sources in 1901 :- agricultural and pastoral employments 444,000; industries 64,200; traders and their employes 118,000; labourers and servants 31,300; various professions 15,700; officials 12,000; clergy about 6000; lawyers 4000; physicians 2500. In 1879, 1,635,698 of the population were returned as Orthodox Christians, 14,677 as Catholics and Protestants, 2652 as Jews, and 740 as of other religions. The annexation of Thessaly and part of Epirus is stated to have added 24,165 Mahommedan subjects to the Hellenic kingdom. A considerable portion of these, however, emigrated immediately after the annexation, and, although a certain number subsequently returned, the total Mahommedan population in Greece was estimated to be under 5000 in 1908. A number of the Christian inhabitants of these regions, estimated at about 50,000, retained Turkish nationality with the object of escaping military service. The Albanian population, estimated at 200,000 by Finlay in 1851, still probably exceeds 120,000. It is gradually being absorbed in the Hellenic population. In 18 7 0, 37,59 8 persons (an obviously untrustworthy figure) were returned as speaking Albanian only. In 1879 the number is given as 58,858. The Vlach population, which has been increased by the annexation of Thessaly, numbers about 60,000. The number of foreign residents is unknown. The Italians are the most numerous, numbering about 11,000. Some 1500 persons, mostly Maltese, possess British nationality.

    Departments.


    Pop.


    Departments.


    Pop.

    !1 Attica. .


    341,247


    14


    Corinth


    71,229

    2 Boeotia. .


    65,816


    15


    Arcadia


    162,324

    '3 Phthiotis.


    112,328


    16


    Achaea


    150,918

    4 Phocis .


    62,246


    17


    Elis


    103,810

    5 Aetolia and Acar-


    18


    Triphylia


    90,523

    nania.. .


    141,405


    19


    Messenia


    127,991

    6 Eurytania. .


    47,192


    20


    Laconia .


    61,522

    7 Arta. .. .


    41,280


    21


    Lacedaemon


    87,106

    8 Trikkala.. .


    90,548


    22


    Corfu


    99,571

    9 Karditsa .


    92,941


    23


    Cephalonia


    71,235

    10 Larissa.. .


    95,066


    24


    Leucas (with Ithaca)


    41,186

    II Magnesia.. .


    102,742


    25


    Zante.. .


    42,502

    12 Euboea.. .


    116,903


    26


    Cyclades. .


    130,378

    13 Argolis. .


    81,943


    By a law of 27 November 1899, Greece, which had hitherto been divided into sixteen departments (voµoc) was redivided into twenty- six departments, as follows: The population is densest in the Ionian Islands, exceeding 307 per sq. m. The departments of Acarnania, Phocis and Euboea are the most thinly inhabited (about 58, 61 and 66 per sq. m. respectively).

    Very little information is obtainable with regard to the movement of the population; no register of births, deaths and marriages is kept in Greece. The only official statistics are found in the periodical returns of the mortality in the twelve principal towns, according to which the yearly average of deaths in these towns for the five years 1903-1907 was approximately 10,253, or 23.8 per moo; of these more than a quarter are ascribed to pulmonary consumption, due in the main to defective sanitation. Both the birth-rate and death-rate are low, being 27.6 and 20.7 per moo respectively. Infant mortality is slight, and in point of longevity Greece compares favourably with most other European countries. The number of illegitimate births is 12.25 per 1000; these are almost exclusively in the towns.


    1896.


    1907.

    Athens


    111,486


    167,479

    Peiraeus


    43, 8 4 8


    73,579

    Patras


    37,9 8 5


    37,724

    Of the total population 28.5% are stated to live in towns. The population of the principal towns is: 1 No state survey of Greece was available in 1908, though a survey h. d been undertaken by the ministry of war.

    ETHNOLOGY]


    1896.


    1907.

    Trikkala .


    21,149


    17,809

    Hermopolis (Syra) .


    18,760


    18,132

    Corfu .


    18,581


    28,254 1

    Volo .


    16,788


    23,563

    Larissa .


    1 5,373


    18,001

    Zante .


    14,906


    13,580

    Kalamata


    14,298


    15,397

    Pyrgos .


    12,708


    13,690

    Tripolis .


    10 ,4 6 5


    10,789

    Chalcis .


    8,661


    10,958

    Lauriuln


    7,926


    10,007

    No trustworthy information is obtainable with regard to immigration and emigration, of which no statistics have ever been kept. Emigration, which was formerly in the main to Egypt and Rumania, is now almost exclusively to the United States of America. The principal exodus is from Arcadia, Laconia and Maina; the emigrants from these districts, estimated at about 14,000 annually, are for the most part young men approaching the age of military service. According to American statistics 12,431 Greeks arrived in the United States from Greece during the period 1869-1898 and 130,154 in 1899-1907; a considerable number, however, have returned to Greece, and those remaining in the United States at the end of 1907 were estimated at between 136,000 and 138,000; this number was considerably reduced in 1908 by remigration. Since 1896 the tendency to emigration has received a notable and somewhat alarming impulse. There is an increasing immigration into the towns from the rural districts, which are gradually becoming depopulated. Both movements are due in part to the preference of the Greeks for a town life and in part to distaste for military service, but in the main to the poverty of the peasant population, whose condition and interests have been neglected by the government.

    Greece is inhabited by three races - the Greeks, the Albanians and the Vlachs. The Greeks who are by far the most numerous, have to a large extent absorbed the other races; the the foundation of the Greek kingdom. Like most European nations, the modern Greeks are a mixed race. The question of their origin has been the subject of much learned controversy; their presumed descent from the Greeks of the classical epoch has proved a national asset of great value; during the period of their struggle for independence it won them the devoted zeal of the Philhellenes, it inspired the enthusiasm of Byron, Victor Hugo, and a host of minor poets, and it has furnished a pleasing illusion to generations of scholarly tourists who delight to discover in the present inhabitants of the country the mental and physical characteristics with which they have been familiarized by the literature and art of antiquity. This amiable tendency is encouraged by the modern Greeks, who possess an implicit faith in their illustrious ancestry. The discussion of the question entered a very acrimonious stage with the appearance in 1830 of Fallmerayer's History of the Morea during the Middle Ages. Fallmerayer maintained that after the great Slavonic immigration at the close of the 8th century the original population of northern Greece and the Morea, which had already been much reduced during the Roman period, was practically supplanted by the Slavonic element and that the Greeks of modern times are in fact Byzantinized Sla y s. This theory was subjected to exhaustive criticism by Ross, Hopf, Finlay and other scholars, and although many of Fallmerayer's conclusions remain unshaken, the view is now generally held that the base of the population both in the mainland and the Morea is Hellenic, not Slavonic. During the 5th and 6th centuries Greece had been subjected to Slavonic incursions which resulted in no permanent settlements. After the great plague of 746-747, however, large tracts of depopulated country were colonized by Slavonic immigrants; the towns remained in the hands of the Greeks, many of whom emigrated to Constantinople. In the Morea the Sla y s established themselves principally in Arcadia and the region of Taygetus, extending their settlements into Achaia, Elis, Laconia and the promontory of Taenaron; on the mainland they occupied portions of Acarnania, Aetolia, Doris and Phocis. Slavonic place-names occurring in all these districts confirm the evidence of history with regard to this immigration. The Sla y s, who were not a maritime race, did not colonize the Aegean Islands, but a few Slavonic place-names 1 Including suburbs.

    in Crete seem to indicate that some of the invaders reached that island. The Slavonic settlements in the Morea proved more permanent than those in northern Greece, which were attacked by the armies of the Byzantine emperors. But even in the Morea the Greeks, or " Romans " as they called themselves (`Pw t iaioc), who had been left undisturbed on the eastern side of the peninsula, eventually absorbed the alien element, which disappeared after the 15th century. In addition to the placenames the only remaining traces of the Slav immigration are the Slavonic type of features, which occasionally recurs, especially among the Arcadian peasants, and a few customs and traditions. Even when allowance is made for the remarkable power of assimilation which the Greeks possessed in virtue of their superior civilization, it is difficult to resist the conclusion that the Hellenic element must always have been the most numerous in order to effect so complete an absorption. This element has apparently undergone no essential change since the epoch of Roman domination. The destructive invasions of the Goths in A.D. 267 and 395 introduced no new ethnic feature; the various races which during the middle ages obtained partial or complete mastery in Greece - the Franks, the Venetians, the Turks - contributed no appreciable ingredient to the mass of the population. The modern Greeks may therefore be regarded as in the main the descendants of the population which inhabited Greece in the earlier centuries of Byzantine rule. Owing to the operation of various causes, historical, social and economic, that population was composed of many heterogeneous elements and represented in a very limited degree the race which repulsed the Persians and built the Parthenon. The internecine conflicts of the Greek communities, wars with foreign powers and the deadly struggles of factions in the various cities, had to a large extent obliterated the old race of free citizens by the beginning of the Roman period. The extermination of the Plataeans by the Spartans and of the Melians by the Athenians during the Peloponnesian war, the proscription of Athenian citizens after the war, the massacre of the Corcyraean oligarchs by the democratic party, the slaughter of the Thebans by Alexander and of the Corinthians by Mummius, are among the more familiar instances of the catastrophes which overtook the civic element in the Greek cities; the void can only have been filled from the ranks of the metics or resident aliens and of the descendants of the far more numerous slave population. Of the latter a portion was of Hellenic origin; when a city was taken the males of military age were frequently put to the sword, but the women and children were sold as slaves; in Laconia and Thessaly there was a serf population of indigenous descent. In the classical period four-fifths of the population of Attica were slaves and of the remainder half were metics. In the Roman period the number of slaves enormously increased, the supply being maintained from the regions on the borders of the empire; the same influences which in Italy extinguished the small landed proprietors and created the latifundia prevailed also in Greece. The purely Hellenic population, now greatly diminished, congregated in the towns; the large estates which replaced the small freeholds were cultivated by slaves and managed or farmed by slaves or freedmen, and wide tracts of country were wholly depopulated. How greatly the free citizen element had diminished by the close of the 1st century A.D. may be judged from the estimate of Plutarch that all Greece could not furnish more than 3000 hoplites. The composite population which replaced the ancient Hellenic stock became completely Hellenized. According to craniologists the modern Greeks are brachycephalous while the ancient race is stated to have been dolichocephalous, but it seems doubtful whether any such generalization with regard to the ancients can be conclusively established. The Aegean islanders are more brachycephalous than the inhabitants of the mainland, though apparently of purer Greek descent. No general conception of the facial type of the ancient race can be derived from the highly-idealized statues of deities, heroes and athletes; so far as can be judged from portrait statues it was very varied. Among the modern Greeks the same variety of features prevails; the face is usually oval, the nose generally rocess of assimilation has been es eciall ra id since P P Y P long and somewhat aquiline, the teeth regular, and the eyes remarkably bright and full of animation. The country-folk are, as a rule, tall and well-made, though slightly built and rather meagre; their form is graceful and supple in movement. The urban population, as elsewhere, is physically very inferior. The women often display a refined and delicate beauty which disappears at an early age. The best physical types of the race are found in Arcadia, in the Aegean Islands and in Crete.

    The Albanian population extends over all Attica and Megaris (except the towns of Athens, Peiraeus and Megara), the greater part of Boeotia, the eastern districts of Locris, the southern half of Euboea and the northern side of Andros, the whole of the islands of Salamis, Hydra, Spetsae and Poros, and part of Aegina, the whole of Corinthia and Argolis, the northern districts of Arcadia and the eastern portion of Achaea. There are also small Albanian groups in Laconia and Messenia (see Albania). The Albanians, who call themselves Shkyipetar, and are called by the Greeks Arvanilae ('Ap i 3av rat), belong to the Tosk or southern branch of the race; their immigration took place in the latter half of the 14th century. Their first settlements in the Morea were made in 1347-1355. The Albanian colonization was first checked by the Turks; in 1454 an Albanian insurrection in the Morea against Byzantine rule was crushed by the Turkish general Tura Khan, whose aid had been invoked by the Palaeologi. With a few exceptions, the Albanians in Greece retained their Christian faith after the Turkish conquest. The failure of the insurrection of 1770 was followed by a settlement of Moslem Albanians, who had been employed by the Turks to suppress the revolt. The Christian Albanians have long lived on good terms with the Greeks while retaining their own customs and language and rarely intermarrying with their neighbours. They played a brilliant part during the War of Independence, and furnished the Greeks with many of their most distinguished leaders. The process of their Hellenization, which scarcely began till after the establishment of the kingdom, has been somewhat slow; most of the men can now speak Greek, but Albanian is still the language of the household. The Albanians, who are mainly occupied with agriculture, are less quick-witted, less versatile, and less addicted to politics than the Greeks, who regard them as intellectually their inferiors. A vigorous and manly race, they furnish the best soldiers in the Greek army, and also make excellent sailors.

    The Vlachs, who call themselves Aromfni, i. e. Romans, form another important foreign element in the population of Greece. They are found principally in Pindus (the Agrapha district), the mountainous parts of Thessaly, Othrys, Oeta, the mountains of Boeotia, Aetolia and Acarnania; they have a few settlements in Euboea. They are for the most part either nomad shepherds and herdsmen or carriers (kiradjis). They apparently descend from the Latinized provincials of the Roman epoch who took refuge in the higher mountains from the incursions of the barbarians and Sla y s (see Vlachs and Macedonia). In the 13th century the Vlach principality of " Great Walachia " (MEy iXrt BXaxia) included Thessaly and southern Macedonia as far as Castoria; its capital was at Hypati near Lamia. Acarnania and Aetolia were known as " Lesser Walachia." The urban element among the Vlachs has been almost completely Hellenized; it has always displayed great aptitude for commerce, and Athens owes many of its handsomest buildings to the benefactions of wealthy Vlach merchants. The nomad population in the mountains has retained its distinctive nationality and customs together with its Latin language, though most of the men can speak Greek. Like the Albanians, the pastoral Vlachs seldom intermarry with the Greeks; they occasionally take Greek wives, but never give their daughters to Greeks; many of them are illiterate, and their children rarely attend the schools. Owing to their deficient intellectual culture they are regarded with disdain by the Greeks, who employ the term (Xaxos to denote not only a shepherd but an ignorant rustic.

    A considerable Italian element was introduced into the Ionian Islands during the middle ages owing to their prolonged subjection to Latin princes and subsequently (till 1797) to the Venetian republic. The Italians intermarried with the Greeks; Italian became the language of the upper classes, and Roman Catholicism was declared the state religion. The peasantry, however, retained the Greek language and remained faithful to the Eastern Church; during the past century the Italian element was completely absorbed by the Greek population.

    The Turkish population in Greece, which numbered about 70,000 before the war of liberation, disappeared in the course of the struggle or emigrated at its conclusion. The Turks in Thessaly are mainly descended either from colonists established in the country by the Byzantine emperors or from immigrants from Asia Minor, who arrived at the end of the 14th century; they derive their name Konariots from Iconium (Konia). Many of the beys or land-owning class are the lineal representatives of the Seljuk nobles who obtained fiefs under the feudal system introduced here and in Macedonia by the Sultan Bayezid I.

    Notwithstanding their composite origin, their wide geographical distribution and their cosmopolitan instincts, the modern Greeks are a remarkably homogeneous people, National differing markedly in character from neighbouring character. races, united by a common enthusiasm in the pursuit of their national aims, and profoundly convinced of their superiority to other nations. Their distinctive character, combined with their traditional tendency to regard non-Hellenic peoples as barbarous, has, indeed, to some extent counteracted the results of their great energy and zeal in the assimilation of other races; the advantageous position which they attained at an early period under Turkish rule owing to their superior civilization, their versatility, their wealth, and their monopoly of the ecclesiastical power would probably have enabled them to Hellenize permanently the greater part of the Balkan peninsula had their attitude towards other Christian races been more sympathetic. Always the most civilized race in the East, they have successively influenced their Macedonian, Roman and Turkish conquerors, and their remarkable intellectual endowments bid fair to secure them a brilliant position in the future. The intense patriotic zeal of the Greeks may be compared with that of the Hungarians; it is liable to degenerate into arrogance and intolerance; it sometimes blinds their judgment and involves them in ill-considered enterprises, but it nevertheless offers the best guarantee for the ultimate attainment of their national aims. All Greeks, in whatever country they may reside, work together for the realization of the Great Idea (i MEyaXrt 'ISEa)- the supremacy of Hellenism in the East - and to this object they freely devote their time, their wealth and their talents; the large fortunes which they amass abroad are often bequeathed for the foundation of various institutions in Greece or Turkey, for the increase of the national fleet and army, or for the spread of Hellenic influence in the Levant. This patriotic sentiment is unfortunately much exploited by self-seeking demagogues and publicists, who rival each other in exaggerating the national pretensions and in pandering to the national vanity. In no other country is the passion for politics so intense; " keen political discussions are constantly going on at the cafes; the newspapers, which are extraordinarily numerous and generally of little value, are literally devoured, and every measure of the government is violently criticized and ascribed to interested motives." The influence of the journals is enormous; even the waiters in the: cafés and domestic servants have their favourite newspaper, and discourse fluently on the political problems of the day. Much of the national energy is wasted by this continued political fever; it is diverted from practical aims, and may be said to evaporate in words. The practice of independent criticism tends to indiscipline in the organized public services; it has been remarked that every Greek soldier is a general and every sailor an admiral. During the war of 1897 a young naval lieutenant telegraphed to the minister of war condemning the measures taken by his admiral, and his action was applauded by several journals. There is also little discipline in the ranks of political parties, which are held together, not by any definite principle, but by the personal influence of the leaders; defections are frequent, and as a rule each deputy in the Chamber makes his terms with his chief. On the other hand, the independent character of the Greeks is favourably illustrated by the circumstance that Greece is the only country in the Balkan peninsula in which the government cannot count on securing a majority by official pressure at the elections. Few scruples are observed in political warfare, but attacks on private life are rare. The love of free discussion is inherent in the strongly-rooted democratic instinct of the Greeks. They are in spirit the most democratic of European peoples; no trace of Latin feudalism survives, and aristocratic pretensions are ridiculed. In social life there is no artificial distinction of classes; all titles of nobility are forbidden; a few families descended from the chiefs in the War of Independence enjoy a certain pre-eminence, but wealth and, still more, political or literary notoriety constitute the principal claim to social consideration. The Greeks display great intellectual vivacity; they are clever, inquisitive, quick-witted and ingenious, but not profound; sustained mental industry and careful accuracy are distasteful to them, and their aversion to manual labour is still more marked. Even the agricultural class is but moderately industrious; abundant opportunities for relaxation are provided by the numerous church festivals. The desire for instruction is intense even in the lowest ranks of the community; rhetorical and literary accomplishments possess a greater attraction for the majority than the fields of modern science. The number of persons who seek to qualify for the learned professions is excessive; they form a superfluous element in the community, an educated proletariat, attaching themselves to the various political parties in the hope of obtaining state employment and spending an idle existence in the cafes and the streets when their party is out of power. In disposition the Greeks are lively, cheerful, plausible, tactful, sympathetic; very affable with strangers, hospitable, kind to their servants and dependants, remarkably temperate and frugal in their habits, amiable and united in family life. Drunkenness is almost unknown, thrift is universally practised; the standard of sexual morality is high, especially in the rural districts, where illegitimacy is extremely rare. The faults of the Greeks must in a large degree be attributed to their prolonged subjection to alien races; their cleverness often degenerates into cunning, their ready invention into mendacity, their thrift into avarice, their fertility of resource into trickery and fraud. Dishonesty is not a national vice, but many who would scorn to steal will not hesitate to compass illicit gains by duplicity and misrepresentation; deceit, indeed, is often practised gratuitously for the mere intellectual satisfaction which it affords. In the astuteness of their monetary dealings the Greeks proverbially surpass the Jews, but fall short of the Armenians; their remarkable aptitude for business is sometimes marred by a certain short-sightedness which pursues immediate profits at the cost of ulterior advantages. Their vanity and egoism, which are admitted by even the most favourable observers, render them jealous, exacting, and peculiarly susceptible to flattery. In common with other southern European peoples the Greeks are extremely excitable; their passionate disposition is prone to take offence at slight provocation, and trivial quarrels not infrequently result in homicide. They are religious, but by no means fanatical, except in regard to politico-religious questions affecting their national aims. In general the Greeks may be described as a clever, ambitious and versatile people, capable of great effort and sacrifice, but deficient in some of the more solid qualities which make for national greatness.

    The customs and habits of the Greek peasantry, in which the observances of the classical age may often be traced, together Customs. with their legends and traditions, have furnished an interesting subject of investigation to many writers (see Bibliography below). In the towns the more cosmopolitan population has largely adopted the " European " mode of life, and the upper classes show a marked preference for French manners and usages. In both town and country, however, the influence of oriental ideas is still apparent, due in part to the long period of Turkish domination, in part to the contact of the Greeks with Asiatic races at all epochs of their history. In the rural districts, especially, the women lead a somewhat secluded life and occupy a subject position; they wait at table, and only partake of the meal when the men of the family have been served. In most parts of continental Greece the women work in the fields, but in the Aegean Islands and Crete they rarely leave the house. Like the Turks, the Greeks have a great partiality for coffee, which can always be procured even in the remotest hamlets; the Turkish practice of carrying a string of beads or rosary (comboloio), which provides an occupation for the hands, is very common. Many of the observances in connexion with births, christenings, weddings and funerals are very interesting and in some cases are evidently derived from remote antiquity. Nuptial ceremonies are elaborate and protracted; in some of the islands of the archipelago they continue for three weeks. In the preliminary negotiations for a marriage the question of the bride's dowry plays a very important part; a girl without a dowry often remains unmarried, notwithstanding the considerable excess of the male over the female population. Immediately after the christening of a female child her parents begin to lay up her portion, and young men often refrain from marrying until their sisters have been settled in life. The dead are carried to the tomb in an open coffin; in the country districts professional mourners are engaged to chant dirges; the body is washed with wine and crowned with a wreath of flowers. A valedictory oration is pronounced at the grave. Many superstitions still prevail among the peasantry; the belief in the vampire and the evil eye is almost universal. At Athens and in the larger towns many handsome dwelling-houses may be seen, but the upper classes have no predilection for rural life, and their country houses are usually mere farmsteads, which they rarely visit. In the more fertile districts two-storeyed houses of the modern type are common, but in the mountainous regions the habitations of the country-folk are extremely primitive; the small stone-built hut, almost destitute of furniture, shelters not only the family but its cattle and domestic animals. In Attica the peasants' houses are usually built of cob. In Maina the villagers live in fortified towers of three or more storeys; the animals occupy the ground floor, the family the topmost storey; the intermediate space serves as a granary or hay-loft. The walls are loop-holed for purposes of defence in view of the traditional vendetta and feuds, which in some instances have been handed down from remote generations and are maintained by occasional sharp-shooting from these primitive fortresses. In general cleanliness and sanitation are much neglected; the traveller in the country districts is doomed to sleepless nights unless he has provided himself with bedding and a hammock. Even Athens, though enriched by many munificent benefactions, is still without a drainage system or an adequate water supply; the sewers of many houses open into the streets, in which rubbish is allowed to accumulate. The effects of insanitary conditions are, however, counteracted in some degree by the excellent climate. The Aegean islanders contrast favourably with the continentals in point of personal cleanliness and the neatness of their dwellings; their houses are generally covered with the flat roof, familiar in Asia, on which the family sleep in summer. The habits and customs of the islanders afford an interesting study. Propitiatory rites are still practised by the mariners and fishermen, and thankofferings for preservation at sea are hung up in the churches. Among the popular amusements of the Greeks dancing holds a prominent place; the dance is of various kinds; the most usual is the somewhat inanimate round dance (vvprO or Tatra), in which a number of persons, usually of the same sex, take part holding hands; it seems indentical with the Slavonic kolo (" circle "). The more lively Albanian fling is generally danced by three or four persons, one of whom executes a series of leaps and pirouettes. The national music is primitive and monotonous. All classes are passionately addicted to card-playing, which is forbidden by law in places of public resort. The picturesque national costume, which is derived from the Albanian Tosks, has unfortunately been abandoned by the upper classes and the urban population since the abdication of King Otho, who always wore it; it is maintained as the uniform of the evzones (highland regiments). It consists of a red cap with dark blue tassel, a white shirt with wide sleeves, a vest and jacket, sometimes of velvet, handsomely adorned with gold or black braid, a belt in which various weapons are carried, a white kilt or fustanella of many folds, white hose tied with garters, and red leather shoes with pointed ends, from which a tassel depends. Over all is worn the shaggy white capote. The islanders wear a dark blue costume with a crimson waistband, loose trousers descending to the knee, stockings and pumps or long boots. The women's costume is very varied; the loose red fez is sometimes worn and a short velvet jacket with rich gold embroidery. The more elderly women are generally attired in black. In the Megara district and elsewhere peasant girls wear on festive occasions a headdress composed of strings of coins which formerly represented the dowry.

    Greece is a constitutional monarchy; hereditary in the male line, or, in case of its extinction, in the female. The sovereign, by decision of the conference of London (August 1863), i s styled " king of the Hellenes "; the title " king of Greece " was borne by King Otho. The heir apparent is styled o ScItSoXos, " the successor "; the title " duke of Sparta," which has been accorded to the crown prince, is not generally employed in Greece. The king and the heir apparent must belong to the Orthodox Greek Church; a special exception has been made for King George, who is a Lutheran. The king attains his majority on completing his eighteenth year; before ascending the throne he must take the oath to the constitution in presence of the principal ecclesiastical and lay dignitaries of the kingdom, and must convoke the Chamber within two months after his accession. The civil list amounts to 1,125,000 dr., in addition to which it was provided that King George should receive £4000 annually as a personal allowance from each of the three protecting powers, Great Britain, France and Russia. The heir apparent receives from the state an annuity of 200,000 dr. The king has a palace at Athens and other residences at Corfu, Tatoi (on the slopes of Mt Fames) and Larissa. The present constitution dates from the 29th of October 1864. The legislative power is shared by the king with a single chamber (/30vXi 7 ) elected by manhood suffrage for a period of four years. The election is by ballot; candidates must have completed their thirtieth year and electors their twenty-first. The deputies ((30vAev-rai), according to the constitution, receive only their travelling expenses, but they vote themselves a payment of 1800 dr. each for the session and a further allowance in case of an extraordinary session. The Chamber sits for a term of not less than three or more than six months. No law can be passed except by an absolute majority of the house, and one-half of the members must be present to form a quorum; these arrangements have greatly facilitated the practice of obstruction, and often enable individual deputies to impose terms on the government for their attendance. In 1898 the number of deputies was 234. Some years previously a law diminishing the national representation and enlarging the constituencies was passed by Trikoupis with the object of checking the local influence of electors upon deputies, but the measure was subsequently repealed. The number of deputies, however, who had hitherto been elected in the proportion of one to twelve thousand of the population, was reduced in 1905, when the proportion of one to sixteen thousand was substituted; the Chamber of 1906, elected under the new system, consisted of 177 deputies. In 1906 the electoral districts were diminished in number and enlarged so as to coincide with the twenty-six administrative departments (P6Aoc); the reduction of these departments to their former number of sixteen, which is in contemplation, will bring about some further diminution in parliamentary representation. It is hoped that recent legislation will tend to check the pernicious practice of bartering personal favours, known as avvaXAayrt, which still prevails to the great detriment of public morality, paralysing all branches of the administration and wasting the resources of the state. Political parties are formed not for the furtherance of any principle or cause, but with the object of obtaining the spoils of office, and the various groups, possessing no party watchword or programme, frankly designate themselves by the names of their leaders. Even the strongest government is compelled to bargain with its supporters in regard to the distribution of patronage and other favours. The consequent instability of successive ministries has retarded useful legislation and seriously checked the national progress. In 1906 a law was passed disqualifying junior officers of the army and navy for membership of the Chamber; great numbers of these had hitherto been candidates at every election. This much-needed measure had previously been passed by Trikoupis, but had been repealed by his rival Delyannes. The executive is vested in the king, who is personally irresponsible, and governs through ministers chosen by himself and responsible to the Chamber, of which they are ex-officio members. He appoints all public officials, sanctions and proclaims laws, convokes, prorogues and dissolves the Chamber, grants pardon or amnesty, coins money and confers decorations. There are seven ministries which respectively control the departments of foreign affairs, the interior, justice, finance, education and worship, the army and the navy.

    The 26 departments or voµoi, into which the country is divided for administrative purposes, are each under a prefect or nomarch (voµapxos); they are subdivided into 69 districts or eparchies, and into 445 communes or demes (S 13t oc) .' under mayors or demarchs apXoc). The prefects and sub-prefects are nominated by the government; the mayors are elected by the communes for a period of four years. The prefects are assisted by a departmental council, elected by the population, which manages local business and assesses rates; there are also communal councils under the presidency of the mayors. There are altogether some 12,000 state-paid officials in the country, most of them inadequately remunerated and liable to removal or transferral upon a change of government. A host of office-seekers has thus been created, and large numbers of educated persons spend many years in idleness or in political agitation. A law passed in 1905 secures tenure of office to civil servants of fifteen years' standing, and some restrictions have been placed on the dismissal and transferral of schoolmasters.

    Under the Turks the Greeks retained, together with their ecclesiastical institutions, a certain measure of local self-government and judicial independence. The Byzantine code, based on the Roman, as embodied in the `Ea/3c,3Aos of Armenopoulos (1345), was sanctioned by royal decree in1835 with some modifications as the civil law of Greece. Further modifications and new enactments were subsequently introduced, derived from the old French and Bavarian systems. The penal code is Bavarian, the commercial French. Liberty of person and domicile is inviolate; no arrest can be made, no house entered, and no letter opened without a judicial warrant. Trial by jury is established for criminal, political and press offences. A new civil code, based on Saxon and Italian law, has been drawn up by a commission of jurists, but it has not yet been considered by the Chamber. A separate civil code, partly French, partly Italian, is in force in the Ionian Islands. The law is administered by r court of cassation (styled the " Areopagus "), 5 courts of appeal, 26 courts of first instance, 233 justices of the peace and 19 correctional tribunals.

    The judges, who are appointed by the Crown, are liable to removal by the minister of justice, whose exercise of this right is often invoked by political partisans. The administration of justice suffers in consequence, more especially in the country districts, where the judges must reckon with the influential politicians and their adherents. The pardon or release of a convicted criminal is not infrequently due to pressure on the part of some powerful patron. The lamentable effects of this system have long been recognized, and in 1906 a law was introduced securing tenure of office for two or four years to judges of the courts of first instance and of the inferior tribunals. In the circumstances crime is less rife than might be expected; the temperate habits of the Greeks have conduced to this result. A serious feature is the great prevalence of homicide, due in part to the passionate character of the people, but still more to the almost universal practice of carrying weapons. The traditions of the vendetta are almost extinct in the Ionian Islands, but still linger in Maina, where family feuds are transmitted from generation to generation. The brigand of the old-fashioned type (X rri j s, KX c/ Tijs) has almost disappeared, except in the remoter country districts, and piracy, once so prevalent in the Aegean, has been practically suppressed, but numbers of outlaws or absconding criminals (4vyo&Kot) still haunt the mountains, and the efforts of the police to bring them to justice are far from successful. Their ranks were considerably increased after the war of 1897, when many deserters from the army and adventurers who came to Greece as volunteers betook themselves to a predatory life. On the other hand, there is no habitually criminal class in Greece, such as exists in the large centres of civilization, and professional mendicancy is still rare.

    Police duties, for which officers and, in some cases, soldiers of the regular army were formerly employed, are since 1906 carried out by a reorganized gendarmerie force of 194 officers and 6344 non-commissioned officers and men, distributed in the twenty-six departments and commanded by an inspectorgeneral resident at Athens, who is aided by a consultative commission. There are male and female prisons at all the departmental centres; the number of prisoners in 1906 was 5705. Except in the Ionian Islands, the general condition of the prisons is deplorable; discipline and sanitation are very deficient, and conflicts among the prisoners are sometimes reported in which knives and even revolvers are employed. A good prison has been built near Athens by Andreas Syngros, and a reformatory for juvenile offenders (Ecf m13Eiov) has been founded by George Averoff, another national benefactor. Capital sentences are usually commuted to penal servitude for life; executions, for which the guillotine is employed, are for the most part carried out on the island of Bourzi near Nauplia; they are often postponed for months or even for years. There is no enactment resembling the Habeas Corpus Act, and accused persons may be detained indefinitely before trial. The Greeks, like the other nations liberated from Turkish rule, are somewhat litigious, and numbers of lawyers find occupation even in the smaller country towns.

    The Greeks, an intelligent people, have always shown a remarkable zeal for learning, and popular education has made great strides. So eager is the desire for instruction that schools are often founded in the rural districts on the initiative of the villagers, and the sons of peasants, artisans and small shopkeepers come in numbers to Athens, where they support themselves by domestic service or other humble occupations in order to study at the university during their spare hours. Almost immediately after the accession of King Otho steps were taken to establish elementary schools in all the communes, and education was made obligatory. The law is not very rigorously applied in the remoter districts, but its enforcement is scarcely necessary. In 1898 there were 2914 " demotic " or primary schools, with 3465 teachers, attended by 129,210 boys (5.38% of the population) and 29,119 girls (1 19% of the population). By a law passed in 1905 the primary schools, which had reached the number of 3359 in that year, were reduced to 2604. The expenditure on primary schools is nominally sustained by the communes, but in reality by the government in the form of advances to the communes, which are not repaid; it was reduced in 1905 from upwards of 7,000,000 dr. to under 6,000,000 dr. In 1905 there were 306 " Hellenic " or secondary schools, with 819 teachers and 21,575 pupils (boys only) maintained by the state at a cost of 1,720,096 dr.; and 39 higher schools, or gymnasia, with 261 masters and 6485 pupils, partly maintained by the state (expenditure 615,600 dr.) and partly by benefactions and other means. Besides these public schools there are several private educational institutions, of which there are eight at Athens with 650 pupils. The Polytechnic Institute of Athens affords technical instruction in the departments of art and science to 221 students. Scientific agricultural instruction has been much neglected; there is an agricultural school at Aidinion in Thessaly with 4 o pupils; there are eight agricultural stations (v-aOpoe) in various parts of the country. There are two theological seminaries - the Rizari School at Athens (120 pupils) and a preparatory school at Arta; three other seminaries have been suppressed. The Commercialand Industrial Academy at Athens (about 225 pupils), a private institution, has proved highly useful to the country; there are four commercial schools, each in one of the country towns. A large school for females at Athens, the Arsakion, is attended by 1500 girls. There are several military and naval schools, including the military college of the Euelpides at Athens and the school of naval cadets (r &n, BoKipcw). The university of Athens in 1905 numbered 57 professors and 2598 students, of whom 557 were from abroad. Of the six faculties, theology numbered 79 students, law 1467, medicine 567, arts 206, physics and mathematics 192, and pharmacy 87. The university receives a subvention from the state, which in 1905 amounted to 563,960 dr.; it possesses a library of over 150,000 volumes and geological, zoological and botanical museums. A small tax on university education was imposed in 1903; the total cost to the student for the four years' course at the university is about X25. Higher education is practically gratuitous in Greece, and there is a somewhat ominous increase in the number of educated persons who disdain agricultural pursuits and manual labour. The intellectual culture acquired is too often of a superficial character owing to the tendency to sacrifice scientific thoroughness and accuracy, to neglect the more useful branches of knowledge, and to aim at a showy dialectic and literary proficiency. (For the native and foreign archaeological institutions see Athens.) The Greek branch of the Orthodox Eastern Church is practically independent, like those of Servia, Montenegro and Rumania, though nominally subject to the patriarchate of Constantinople. The jurisdiction of the patriarch was in fact repudiated in 1833, when the king was declared the supreme head of the church, and the severance was completed in 1850. Ecclesiastical affairs are under the control of the Ministry of Education. Church government is vested in the Holy Synod, a council of five ecclesiastics under the presidency of the metropolitan of Athens; its sittings are attended by a royal commissioner. The church can invoke the aid of the civil authorities for the punishment of heresy and the suppression of unorthodox literature, pictures, &c. There were formerly 21 archbishoprics and 29 bishoprics in Greece, but a law passed in 1899 suppressed the archbishoprics (except the metropolitan see of Athens) on the death of the existing prelates, and fixed the total number of sees at 32. The prelates derive their incomes partly from the state and partly from the church lands. There are about 5500 priests, who belong for the most part to the poorest classes. The parochial clergy have no fixed stipends, and often resort to agriculture or small trading in order to supplement the scanty fees earned by their ministrations. Owing to their lack of education their personal influence over their parishioners is seldom considerable. In addition to the parochial clergy there are 19 preachers (tEpoKipvKEs) salaried by the state. There are 170 monasteries and 4 nunneries in Greece, with about 1600 monks and 250 nuns. In regard to their constitution the monasteries are either " idiorrhythmic " or " coenobian " (see Athos); the monks (KaX6yEpot) are in some cases assisted by lay brothers (KoaµtKoi). More than 300 of the smaller monasteries were suppressed in 1829 and their revenues secularized. Among the more important and interesting monasteries are those of Megaspelaeon and Lavra (where the standard of insurrection, unfurled in 1821, is preserved) near Kalavryta, St Luke of Stiris near Arachova, Daphne and Penteli near Athens, and the Meteora group in northern Thessaly. The bishops, who must be unmarried, are as a rule selected from the monastic order and are nominated by the king; the parish priests are allowed to marry, but the remarriage of widowers is forbidden. The bulk of the population, about 2,000,000, belongs to the Orthodox Church; other Christian confessions number about 15,000, the great majority being Roman Catholics. The Roman Catholics (principally in Naxos and the Cyclades) have three archbishoprics(Athens,Naxos andCorfu),five bishoprics and about 60 churches. The Jews, who are regarded with much hostility, have almost disappeared from the Greek mainland; they now number about 5000, and are found principally at Corfu. The Mahommedans are confined to Thessaly except a few at Chalcis. National sentiment is a more powerful factor than personal religious conviction in the attachment of the Greeks to the Orthodox Church; a Greek without the pale of the church is more or less an alien. The Catholic Greeks of Syros sided with the Turks at the time of the revolution; the Mahommedans of Crete, though of pure Greek descent, have always been hostile to their Christian fellow-countrymen and are commonly called Turks. On the other hand, that portion of the Macedonian population which acknowledges the patriarch of Constantinople is regarded as Greek, while that which adheres to the Bulgarian exarchate, though differing in no point of doctrine, has been declared schismatic. The constitution of 1864 guarantees toleration to all creeds in Greece and imposes no civil disabilities on account of religion.

    Greece is essentially an agricultural country; its prosperity depends on its agricultural products, and more than half the population is occupied in the cultivation of the soil and kindred pursuits. The land in the plains and valleys is exceedingly rich, and, wherever there is a sufficiency of water, produces magnificent crops. Cereals nevertheless furnish the principal figure in the list of imports, the annual value being about 30,000,000 fr. The country, especially since the acquisition of the fertile province of Thessaly, might under a well-developed agricultural system provide a food-supply for all its inhabitants and an abundant surplus for exportation. Thessaly alone, indeed, could furnish cereals for the whole of Greece. Unfortunately, however, agriculture is still in a primitive state, and the condition of the rural population has received very inadequate attention from successive governments. The wooden plough of the Hesiodic type is still in use, especially in Thessaly; modern implements, however, are being gradually introduced. The employment of manure and the rotation of crops are almost unknown; the fields are generally allowed to lie fallow in alternate years. As a rule, countries dependent on agriculture are liable to sudden fluctuations in prosperity, but in Greece the diversity of products is so great that a failure in one class of crops is usually compensated by exceptional abundance in another. Among the causes which have hitherto retarded agricultural progress are the ignorance and conservatism of the peasantry, antiquated methods of cultivation, want of capital, absentee proprietorship, sparsity of population, bad roads, the prevalence of usury, the uncertainty of boundaries and the land tax, which, in the absence of a survey, is levied on ploughing oxen; to these may be added the insecurity hitherto prevailing in many of the country districts and the growing distaste for rural life which has accompanied the spread of education. Large estates are managed under the metayer system; the cultivator paying the proprietor from one-third to half of the gross produce; the landlords, who prefer to live in the larger towns, see little of their tenants, and rarely interest themselves in their welfare. A great proportion of the best arable land in Thessaly is owned by persons who reside permanently out of the country. The great estates in this province extend over some 1,500,000 acres, of which about 500,000 are cultivated. In the Peloponnesus peasant proprietorship is almost universal; elsewhere it is gradually supplanting the metayer system; the small properties vary from 2 or 3 to 50 acres. The extensive state lands, about one-third of the area of Greece, were formerly the property of Mahommedan religious communities (vakoufs); they are for the most part farmed out annually by auction. They have been much encroached upon by neighbouring owners; a considerable portion has also been sold to the peasants. The rich plain of Thessaly suffers from alternate droughts and inundations, and from the ravages of field mice; with improved cultivation, drainage and irrigation it might be rendered enormously productive. A commission has been occupied for some years in preparing a scheme of hydraulic works. Usury is, perhaps, a greater scourge to the rural population than any visitation of nature; the institution of agricultural banks, lending money at a fair rate of interest on the security of their land, would do much to rescue the peasants from the clutches of local Shylocks. There is a difficulty, however, in establishing any system of land credit owing to the lack of a survey. Since .1897 a law passed in 1882 limiting the rate of interest to 8% (to 9% in the case of commercial debts) has to some extent been enforced by the tribunals. In the Ionian Islands the rate of 10% still prevails.

    The following figures give approximately the acreage in 1906 and the average annual yield of agricultural produce, no official statistics being available: - Acres.

    Fields sown or lying fallow 3,000,000 Vineyards 337,500 Currant plantations 175,000 Olives (Io,000,000 trees) 250,000 Fruit trees (fig, mulberry, &c.) 125,000 Meadows and pastures 7,500,000 Forests ... 2,000, 000 Waste lands. 2,875,000 16,262,500 Beet 12,000,000 Rice is grown in the marshy plains of Elis, Boeotia, Marathon and Missolonghi; beet in Thessaly. The cultivation of vegetables is increasing; beans, peas and lentils are the most common. Potatoes are grown in the upland districts, but are not a general article of diet. Of late years market-gardening has been taken up as a new industry in the neighbourhood of Athens. There is a great variety of fruits. Olive plantations are found everywhere; in 1860 they occupied about 90,000 acres; in 188 7, 433,7 01 acres. The trees are sometimes of immense age and form a picturesque feature in the landscape. In latter years the groves in many parts of the western Morea and Zante have been cut down to make room for currant plantations; the destruction has been deplorable in its consequences, for, as the tree requires twenty years to come into full bearing, replanting is seldom resorted to. Preserved olives, eaten with bread, are a common article of food. Excellent olive oil is produced in Attica and elsewhere. The value of the oil and fruit exported varies from five to ten million francs. Figs are also abundant, especially in Messenia and in the Cyclades. Mulberry trees are planted for the purposes of sericulture; they have been cut down in great numbers in the currant-growing districts. Other fruit trees are the orange, citron, lemon, pomegranate and almond. Peaches, apricots, pears, cherries, &c., abound, but are seldom scientifically cultivated; the fruit is generally gathered while unripe. Cotton in 1906 occupied about 12,500 acres, chiefly in the neighbourhood of Livadia. Tobacco plantations in 1893 covered 16,320 acres, yielding about 3,500,000 kilograms; the yield in 1906 was 9,000,000 kilograms. About 40% of the produce is exported, principally to Egypt and Turkey. More important are the vineyards, which occupied in 1887 an area of 306,421 acres. The best wine is made at Patras, on the royal estate at Decelea, and on other estates in Attica; a peculiar flavour is imparted to the wine of the country by the addition of resin. The wine of Santorin, the modern representative of the famous " malmsey," is mainly exported to Russia. The foreign demand for Greek wines is rapidly increasing; 3,770,257 gallons were exported in 1890, 4,974,196 gallons in 1894. There is also a growing demand for Greek cognac. The export of wine in 1905 was 20,850,941 okes, value 5,848,544 fr.; of cognac, 363,720 okes, value 1,091,160 fr.

    The currant, by far the most important of Greek exports, is cultivated in a limited area extending along the southern shore of the Gulf of Corinth and the seaboard of the Western Peloponnesus, The average annual yield is as follows: - Wheat Maize Rye Barley .

    Oats Beans, lentils, &c.

    Currants Sultanina Wine .

    Olive oil Olives (preserved) Figs (exported only) Seed cotton Tobacco Vegetables and fresh fruits .

    Cocoons.. Hesperidiums (exported only) Carobs (exported only) .

    Resin kilograms „ Venetian lb hectolitres kilograms „ 350,000,000.20, 000, 000 70,000,000 75,000,000 25,000,000 350,000,000 4,000,000 3,000,000 300,000 100, 000, 000 12,000, 000 6,500,000.8,000,000 20,000,000 1,000, 000 4,000,000 10, 000, 000 5,000,000 in Zante, Cephalonia and Leucas, and in certain districts of Acarnania and Aetolia; attempts to cultivate it elsewhere have Cu rran ts 'generally proved unsuccessful. The history of the currant industry has been a record of extraordinary vicissitudes. Previously to 1877 the currant was exported solely for eating purposes, the amounts for the years 1872 to 1877 being 70,766 tons, 71,222 tons, 76,210 tons, 72,916 tons, 86,947 tons, and 82,181 tons respectively. In 1877, however, the French vineyards began to suffer seriously from the phylloxera, and French wine producers were obliged to have recourse to dried currants, which make an excellent wine for blending purposes. The importation of currants into France at once rose from 881 tons in 1877 to 20,999 tons in 1880, and to 70,401 tons in 1889, or about 20,000 tons more than were imported into England in that year. Meanwhile the total amount of currants produced in Greece had nearly doubled in these thirteen. years. The country was seized with a mania for currant planting; every other industry was neglected, and olive, orange and lemon groves were cut down to make room for the more lucrative growth. The currant growers, in order to increase their production as rapidly as possible, had recourse to loans at a high rate of interest, and the great profits which they made were devoted to further planting, while the loans remained unpaid. A crisis followed rapidly. By 1891 the French vineyards had to a great extent recovered from the disease, and wine producers in France began to clamour against the competition of foreign wines and wine-producing raisins and currants. The import duty on these was thereupon raised from 6 francs to 15 francs per loo kilos, and was further increased in 1894 to 25 francs. The currant trade with France was thus extinguished; of a crop averaging 160,000 tons, only some 110,000 now found a market. Although a fresh opening for exportation was found in Russia, the value of the fruit dropped from £15 to £5 per ton, a price scarcely covering the cost of cultivation. In July 1895 the government introduced a measure, since known as the Retention (vapaKparfQCS) Law, by which it was enacted that every shipper should deliver into depots provided by the government a weight of currants equivalent to 15% of the amount which he intended to export. A later law fixed the quantity to be retained by the state at 10% which might be increased to 20%, should a representative committee, meeting every summer at Athens, so advise the government. The currants thus taken over by the government cannot be exported unless they are reduced to pulp, syrup or otherwise rendered unsuitable for eating purposes; they may be sold locally for wine-making or distilling, due precautions being taken that they are not used in any other way. The price of exported currants is thus maintained at an artificial figure. The Retention Law, which after 1895 was voted annually, was passed for a period of ten years in 1899. This pernicious measure, which is in defiance of all economic laws, perpetuates a superfluous production, retards the development of other branches of agriculture and burdens the government with vast accumulations of an unmarketable commodity. It might excusably be adopted as a temporary expedient to meet a pressing crisis, but as a permanent system it can only prove detrimental to the country and the currant growers themselves.

    Year.


    Total crop

    (tons).


    Exported to

    Gt. Britain.


    Exported to

    France.

    1877


    82,181


    ..


    881

    1878


    100,004


    ..


    9,086

    1 8 79


    92,311


    ..


    19,087

    1880


    92,337


    . .


    20,999

    1881


    121,994


    30,315

    1882


    109,403


    51,933


    26,282

    1883


    114,980


    52,099


    24,815

    1884


    129,268


    59,629


    39,198

    1885


    113,287


    55,765


    37,730

    1886


    127,570


    48,892


    45,000

    1887


    127,160


    55,549


    37,438

    1888


    158,728


    63,714


    40,735

    1889


    142,308


    52,251


    69,555

    1890


    146,749


    67,502


    37,816

    1891


    161,545


    70,762


    39,712

    1892


    116,944


    60,418


    21,721

    1893


    119,886


    73,000


    6,800

    18 94


    135,500


    64,500


    15,000

    1895


    167,695


    60,500


    26,500

    1896


    153,514


    65,000


    6,500

    18 97


    115,730


    63,000


    2,000

    1898


    153,514


    69,500


    6,000

    18 99


    144,071


    65,600


    3,800

    1900


    47,236


    36,000


    300

    1901


    139,820


    58,000


    1,216

    1902


    152,580


    58,400


    4,782

    1903


    179,499


    54,800


    4,470

    1904


    146,500


    58,850


    820

    1905


    162,957


    61,700


    1,042

    In 1899 a " Bank of Viticulture " was established at Patras for the purpose of assisting the growers, to whom it was bound to make advances at a low rate of interest; it undertook the storage and the sale of the retained fruit, from which its capital was derived. The bank soon found itself burdened with an enormous unsaleable stock, while its loans for the most part remained unpaid; meantime over-production, the cause of the trouble, continued to increase, and prices further diminished. In 1903 a syndicate of English and other foreign capitalists made proposals for a monopoly of the export, guaranteeing fixed prices to the growers. The scheme, which conflicted with Anglo-Greek commercial conventions, was rejected by the Theotokis ministry; serious disturbances followed in the currantgrowing districts, and M. Theotokis resigned. His successor, M. Rallis, in order to appease the cultivators, arranged that the Currant Bank should offer them fixed minimum prices for the various growths, and guaranteed it a loan of 6,000,000 dr. The resources of the bank, however, gave out before the end of the season, and prices pursued their downward course. Another experiment was then tried; the export duty (15%) was made payable in kind, the retention quota being thus practically raised from 20 to 35%. The only result of this measure was a diminution of the export; in the spring of 1905 prices fell very low and the growers began to despair. A syndicate of banks and capitalists then came forward, which introduced the system now in operation. A privileged company was formed which obtained a charter from the government for twenty years, during which period the retention and export duties are maintained at the fixed rates of 20 and 15% respectively. The company aims at keeping up the prices of the marketable qualities by employing profitably for industrial purposes the unexported surplus and retained inferior qualities; it pays to the state 4,000,000 dr. annually under the head of export duty; offers all growers at the beginning of each agricultural year a fixed price of 115 dr. per woo Venetian lb irrespective of quality, and pays a price varying from 115 dr. to 145 dr. according to quality at the end of the year for the unexported surplus. In return for these advantages to the growers the company is entitled to receive 7 dr. on every 1000 lb of currants produced and to dispose of the whole retained amount. A special company has been formed for the conversion of the superfluous product into spirit, wine, &c. The system may perhaps prove commercially remunerative, but it penalizes the producers of the better growths in order to provide a livelihood for the growers of inferior and unmarketable kinds and protracts an abnormal situation. The following table gives the annual currant crop from 1877 to 1905: The " peronospora," a species of white blight, first caused considerable damage in the Greek vineyards in 1892, recurring in 1897 and 1900.

    More than half the cultivable area of Greece is devoted to pasturage. Cattle-rearing, as a rule, is a distinct occupation from agricultural farming; the herds are sent to pasture on the Stock- mountains in the summer, and return to the plains at the farming. beginning of winter. The larger cattle are comparatively rare, being kept almost exclusively for agricultural labour; the smaller are very abundant. Beef is scarcely eaten in Greece, the milk of cows is rarely drunk and butter is almost unknown. Cheese, a staple article of diet, is made from the milk of sheep and goats. The number of larger cattle has declined in recent years; that of the smaller has increased. The native breed of oxen is small; buffaloes are seldom seen except in north-western Thessaly; a few camels are used in the neighbourhood of Parnassus. The Thessalian breed of horses, small but sturdy and enduring, can hardly be taken to represent the celebrated chargers of antiquity. Mules are much employed in the mountainous districts; the best type of these animals is found in the islands. The flocks of long-horned sheep and goats add a picturesque feature to Greek rural scenery. The goats are more numerous in proportion to the population than in any other European country (137 per loo inhabitants). The shepherds' dogs rival those of Bulgaria in ferocity. According to an unofficial estimate published in 1905 the numbers of the various domestic animals in 1899 were as follows: Oxen and buffaloes, 408,744; horses, 157,068; mules, 88,869; donkeys, 141,174; camels, 51; sheep, 4,568,151; goats, 3,339,439; pigs, 79,716. During the four years 1899-1902 the annual average value of imported cattle was 4,218,015 dr., of exported cattle 209,321 dr.

    The forest area (about 2,500,000 acres or one-fifth of the surface of the mainland) is for the most part state property. The value of the forests has been estimated at 200,000,000 fr.; the For es ts. most productive are in the district extending from the Pindus range to the Gulf of Corinth. The principal trees are the oak (about 30 varieties), the various coniferae, the chestnut, maple, elm, beech, alder, cornel and arbutus. In Greece, as in other lands formerly subject to Turkish rule, the forests are not only neglected, but often deliberately destroyed; this great source of national wealth is thus continually diminishing. Every year immense forest fires may be seen raging in the mountains, and many of the most picturesque districts in the country are converted into desolate wildernesses. These conflagrations are mainly the work of shepherds eager to provide increased pasturage for their flocks; they are sometimes, however, due to the carelessness of smokers, and occasionally, it is said, to spontaneous ignition in hot weather. Great damage is also done by the goats, which browse on the young saplings;. the pine trees are much in j ured by the practice of scoring their bark for resin. With the disappearance of the trees the soil of the mountain slopes, deprived of its natural protection, is soon washed away by the rain; the rapid descent of the water causes inundations in the plains, while the uplands become sterile and lose their vegetation. The climate has been affected by the change; rain falls less frequently but with greater violence, and the process of denudation is accelerated. The government has from time to time made efforts for the protection of the forests, but with little success till recently. A staff of inspectors and forest guards was first organized in 1877. The administration of the forests has since 1893 been entrusted to a department of the Ministry of Finance, which controls a staff of 4 inspectors (hrLBecwpCiTac), 31 superintendents (Sao-apxol), 52 head foresters (apxu/ 5XaKes) and 298 foresters (SavucbuaaKes). The foresters are aided during the summer months, when fires are most frequent, by about 500 soldiers and gendarmes. About a third of these functionaries have received instruction in the school of forestry at Vythine in the Morea, open since 1898. Owing to the measures now taken, which include excommunication by the parish priests of incendiaries and their accomplices, the conflagrations have considerably diminished. The total annual value of the products of the Greek forests averages 15,000,000 drachmae. The revenue accuring to the government in 1905 was 1,418,158 dr., as compared with 583,991 dr. in 1883. The increase is mainly due to improved administration. The supply of timber for house-construction, shipbuilding, furniture-making, railway sleepers, &c., is insufficient, and is supplemented by importation (annual value about 12,000,000 francs); transport is rendered difficult by the lack of roads and navigable streams. The principal secondary products are valonea (annual exportation about 1,250,000 fr.) and resin, which is locally employed as a preservative ingredient in the fabrication of wine. The administration of the forests is still defective, and measures for the augmentation and better instruction of the staff of foresters have been designed by the government. In 1900 a society for the reafforesting of the country districts and environs of the large towns was founded at Athens under the patronage of the crown princess.


    Tons.


    Francs.

    Chrome. .. .


    8,900


    337,952

    Emery. ... .


    6,972


    742,486

    Gypsum. ... .


    185


    7,995

    Iron ore. .. .. .


    465,622


    3,387,467

    Ferromanganese .


    89,687


    1,182,652

    Lead (argentiferous pig) ore


    13729


    6,811,792

    Lignite.. .


    11,757


    143,814

    Magnesite. .. .


    43,498


    864,982

    Manganese ore.. .


    8,171


    122,565

    Mill stones. .. .


    12,628


    34,660

    Salt. .. .. .


    25,201


    1,638,065

    Sulphur. ... .


    1,126


    121,000

    Zinc ore. ... .


    22,562


    2,852,355

    The chief minerals are silver, lead, zinc, copper manganese, magnesia, iron, sulphur and coal. Emery, salt, millstone and. gypsum, which are found in considerable quantities, are worked by the government. The important mines at Laurium, a source of great wealth to ancient Athens,were reopened in 1864 by a Franco-Italian company, but were declared to be state property in 1871; they are now worked by a Greek and a French company. The output of marketable ore in 1899 amounted to 486,760 tons, besides 289,292 tons of dressed lead ore. In 1905 the output was as follows: Raw and roasted manganese iron ore, 113,636 tons; hematite iron ore, 94,734 tons; calamine or zinc ore, 22,612 tons; arsenic and argentiferous lead, 1875 tons; zinc blende and galena, 443 tons; total, 233,300 tons, together with 164,857 tons of dressed lead, producing 13,822 tons of silver pig lead containing 1657 to 1910 grams of silver per ton. It has been found profitable to resmelt the scoriae of the ancient workings. The total value of the exports from the Laurium mines,which in 1875 amounted to only £150,513, had in 1899 increased to £827,209, but fell in 1905 to £499,882. The revenue accruing to the government from all mines and quarries, including those worked by the state, was estimated in the budget for 1906 at 1,332,000 dr. The emery of Naxos, which is a state monopoly, is excellent in quality and very abundant. Mines of iron ore have latterly been opened at Larimna in Locris. Magnesite mines are worked by an Anglo-Greek company in Euboea. There are sulphur and manganese mines in the island of Melos, and the volcanic island of Santorin produces pozzolana, a kind of cement, which is exported in considerable quantities. The great abundance of marble in Greece has latterly attracted the attention of foreign capitalists. New quarries have been opened since 1897 by an English company on the north slope of Mount Pentelicus, and are now connected by rail with Athens and the Peiraeus. The marble on this side of the mountain is harder than that on the south, which alone was worked by the ancients. The output in 1905 was 1573 tons. Mount Pentelicus furnished material for most of the celebrated buildings of ancient Athens; the marble, which is white, blueveined, and somewhat transparent, assumes a rich yellow hue after long exposure to the air. The famous Parian quarries are still worked; white marble is also found at Scyros, Tenos and Naxos; grey at Stoura and Karystos; variegated at Valaxa and Karystos; green on Taygetus and in Thessaly; black at Tenos; and red (porphyry) in Maina.

    The official statistics of the output and value of minerals produced in 1905 were as in the preceding table.

    The number of persons employed in mining operations in 1905 was 9934.

    Owing to the natural aptitude of the Greeks for commerce and their predilection for a seafaring life a great portion of the trade of the Levant has fallen into their hands. Im portant Greek mercantile colonies exist in all the larger ports of the Mediterranean and the Black Sea and g P ?

    and many of them possess great wealth. In some of the islands of the archipelago almost every householder is the owner or joint owner of a ship. The Greek mercantile marine, which in 1888 consisted of 1352 vessels (70 steamers) with a total tonnage of 219,415 tons, numbered in 1906, according to official returns, 1364 vessels (275 steamers) with a total tonnage of 427,291 tons. This figure is apparently too low, as the shipowners are prone to understate the tonnage in order to diminish the payment of dues. Almost the whole corn trade of Turkey is in Greek hands. A large number of the sailing ships, especially the smaller vessels engaged in the coasting trade, belong to the islanders. A considerable portion of the shipping on the Danube and Pruth is owned by the inhabitants of Ithaca and Cephalonia; a certain number of their sleps (aMirta) have latterly been acquired by Rumanian Jews, but the Greek flag is still predominant. There are seven principal Greek steamship companies owning 40 liners with a total tonnage of 21,972 tons. In 1847 there was but one lighthouse in Greek waters; in 1906 there were 70 lighthouses and 68 port lanterns. Hermoupolis (Syra) is the chief seat of the carrying trade, but as a commercial port it yields to Peiraeus, which is the principal centre of distribution for imports. Other important ports are Patras, Volo, Corfu, Kalamata and Laurium.


    1887.


    1892.


    1897.


    1902.

    Imports

    Exports


    131,849,325

    102,652,487


    119,306,007

    82,261,464


    116 ,3 6 3,34 8

    81,708,626


    137,229,364

    79,663,473

    The following table gives the total value (in francs) of special Greek commerce for the given years: The marked fluctuations in the returns are mainly attributable to variations in the price and quantity of imported cereals and in the sale of currants. The great excess of imports, caused by the large importation of food-stuffs and manufactured articles, is due to the neglect of agriculture and the undeveloped condition of local industries.


    Imports from.


    Exports to.


    Frs.


    Frs.

    Russia. .


    27,725,218


    810,925

    Great Britain. .


    27,516,928


    24,436,707

    Austria-Hungary


    19,444,415


    7,876,806

    Turkey. .. .


    1 5,53 8 ,37 0


    4,516,403

    Germany


    13,896,687


    7,514,474

    France. .. .


    10,101,070


    7,078,321

    Italy. .. .


    6,190,253


    4,266,210

    Bulgaria.. .


    5,135, 718


    133,106

    Rumania


    3,814,641


    1,152,207

    America. .. .


    2,656,501


    6,440,648

    Belgium. .


    2,276,393


    2,068,138

    Netherlands. .


    1,921,762


    7,180,301

    Egypt.. .


    634,035


    5,9z8,555

    Switzerland .


    348,281


    Other countries


    4,555,781


    4,288,365

    Total. .


    141,756,053


    83,691,166

    The imports and exports for 1905 were distributed as follows: An enumeration of the chief articles of importation and exportation, together with their value, will be found in tabular form overleaf.

    Principal Articles of Importation.


    1904.


    1905.

    Articles


    Total value


    Imported from

    the United


    Total value


    Imported from

    the United


    in francs.


    Kingdom.


    in francs.


    Kingdom.

    Cereals.


    27,735,808


    none


    32,511,784


    none

    Textiles


    17,999,344


    10,762,464


    13,460,620


    5,497,172

    Raw minerals. .. .


    13,341,191


    7,630,633


    Forest products. .


    10,146,500


    9,769


    12,254,190


    61,309

    Wrought metals


    7,757,444


    2,162,250


    ..


    Coals and pit-coal


    6,522,086


    6,087,068


    5,073,841


    4,308,357

    Yarn and tissues .


    4,739,819


    2,504,667


    8,021,523


    6,838,079

    Fish ...


    4,992,615


    2,394,224


    1,014,164


    186,072

    Raw hides


    4,558,101


    478,965


    3,909,657


    215,745

    Various animals


    4,271,151


    none


    3,373,523


    1,268

    Horses. .. .


    3,011,450


    none


    2,070,250


    none

    Paper, books, &c.. .


    3,327,144


    157,017


    3,319,700


    76,454

    Coffee. ... .. .


    2,957,601


    293,610


    3,060,904


    107,296

    Sugar. .. ... .


    2,606,696


    none


    2,887,8J4


    70

    Rice. .. .. .


    1,977,894


    63,882


    1,901,486


    236,027

    Colours


    1,750,858


    341,839


    2,146,509


    281,433

    Chief Articles of Exportation.


    1904.


    1905.

    Articles


    Total value


    Exported to

    the United


    Total value


    Exported to

    the United


    in francs.


    Kingdom.


    in francs.


    Kingdom.

    Currants.. .


    28,841,678


    14,569,137


    34,299,780


    17,008,929

    Minerals and raw metals


    19,134,185


    5,161,898


    15,125,072


    5,438,698

    Wines. .. ... .


    10,084,960


    429,143


    5,832,139


    881,696

    Tobacco. .. .. .


    7,285,385


    39,512


    6,157,092


    147,565

    Olive oil. .. .. .


    4,163,262


    212,081


    2,150,285


    64,310

    Figs


    3,583,428


    62,304


    3,309,432


    338,196

    Minerals and metals (worked)


    2,754,24


    7,750


    2,607,580


    900

    Olives


    1,793,362


    9,833


    1,138,116


    18,800

    Valonea. .. .. .


    1,558,678


    200,849


    1,917,014


    146,927

    Cognac.. .. .. .


    1,027,224


    12,099


    1,091,160


    2,283

    Greece does not possess any manufacturing industries on a large scale; the absence of a native coal supply is an obstacle to their development. In 1889 there were 145 establishments employing steam of 5568 indicated horse-power; in 1892 the total horse-power employed was estimated at 10,000. In addition to the smelting-works at Laurium, at which some 5000 hands are employed by Greek and French companies and local proprietors, there are flour mills, cloth, cotton and silk spinning mills, ship-building and engineering works, oil-presses, tanneries, powder and dynamite mills, soap mills (about under the Trikoupis administration. In 1878 there were only 555 m. of roads; in 1898 there were 2398 m.; in 1906, 3275 m. Electric trams have been introduced at Patras. Railways were open to traffic in 1900 for a length of 598 m.; in 1906 for a length of 867 m. The circuit of the Morea railways (462 m.) was completed in 1902; from Diakophto, on the north coast, a cogwheel railway, finished in 1894, ascends to Kalavryta. A very important undertaking is the completion of a line from Peiraeus to the frontier, the contract for which was signed in 1900 between the Greek government and the Eastern Railway Extension Syndicate (subsequently converted into the Societe des Chemins de Fer helleniques). A line connecting Peiraeus with Larissa was begun in 1890, but in 1894 the English company which had undertaken the contract went into liquidation. Under the contract of 1900 the line was drawn through Demerli, in the south of Thessaly, to Larissa, a distance of 217 m., and continued through the vale of Tempe to the Turkish frontier (about 246 m. in all). Branch lines have been constructed to Lamia and Chalcis. The establishment of a connexion with the continental railway system, by a junction with the line from Belgrade to Salonica, would be of immense advantage to Greece, and the Peiraeus would become an important place of embarkation for Egypt, India and the Far East.

    In 1905 the number of post offices was 640. Of these 320 were also telegraph and 89 telephone stations, with 664 clerks; the remaining post offices graphs 40), and some manufactures of paper, glass, matches,turpentine, white lead, hats, gloves, candles, &c. About loo factories are established in the neighbourhood of Athens and Peiraeus. The wine industry (to factories) is of considerable importance, and the manufacture of cognac has latterly made great progress; there are to large and numerous small cognac distilleries. Ship-building is carried on actively at all the ports on the mainland and islands; about 200 ships, mostly of low tonnage, are launched annually.

    Public Works.-The important drainage-works at Lake Copais were taken over by an English company in 1890. The lake covered an area of 58,080 acres, the greater part of which is now rendered fit for cultivation. The drainage works consist of a canal, 28 kilometres in length, and a tunnel of 600 metres descending through the mountain to a lower lake, which is connected by a second tunnel with the sea. The reclaimed land is highly fertile. The area under crops amounted in 1906 to 27,414 acres, of which 20,744 were let to tenants and the remainder farmed by the company. The uncultivated portion affords excellent grazing. The canal through the Isthmus of Corinth was opened to navigation in November 1893. The total cost of the works, which were begun by a company in 1882, was 70,000,000 francs. The narrowness of the canal, which is only 24.60 metres broad at the surface, and the strength of the current which passes through it, seriously detract from its utility. The high charges imposed on foreign vessels have proved almost prohibitive. There are reduced rates for ships sailing in Greek waters. Up to the 31st of July 1906, 37,214 vessels, with a tonnage of 4,971,922, had passed through the canal. The receipts up to that date were3,2°7,835 drachmae (mainly from Greek ships) and 415,976 francs (mainly from foreign ships). In 1905, 2930 vessels (2735 Greek) passed through, the receipts being 281,935 drachmae and 34,142 francs. The total liabilities of the company in 1906 were about 40,000,000 fr. The canal would be more frequented by foreign shipping if the harbours at its entrances were improved, and its sides, which are of masonry, lined with beams; efforts are being made to raise funds for these purposes. The widening of the Euripus Channel at Chalcis to the extent of 21.56 metres was accomplished in 1894. The operations involved the destruction of the picturesque Venetian tower which guarded the strait. A canal was completed in 1903 rendering navigable the shallow channel between Leucas (Santa Maura) and the mainland (breadth 15 metres, depth 5 metres). Large careening docks were undertaken in 1909 at Peiraeus at an estimated cost of 4,75 0, 000 drachmae.

    Communications.-Internal communication by roads is improving, though much remains to be done, especially as regards the quality of the roads. A considerable impetus was given to road-making possess no special staff, but are served by persons who also pursue other occupations. The number of postmen and other employees was 889. During the year there passed through the post 6,897,899 ordinary letters for the interior, 2,980,958 for foreign destinations, 2,788,477 from abroad; 540,411 registered letters or parcels for the interior, 309,907 for foreign countries, and 300,150 from abroad; 880,673 post-cards for the interior, 504,785 from abroad, and 187,975 sent abroad; ioo,680 samples; 7,068,125 printed papers for the interior, 5,278,405 to or from foreign countries. Telegraph lines in 1905 extended over 4222 m. with 6836 m. of wires; 841,913 inland telegrams, 221,188 service telegrams and 129,036 telegrams to foreign destinations were despatched, and 169,519 received from abroad. Receipts amounted to 4,589,601 drachmae (postal service 2,744,212, telegraph and telephone services 1,845,389 drachmae) and expenditure to 3,954,74 2 drachmae.

    The Greek army has recently been in a state of transition. Its condition has never been satisfactory, partly owing to the absence of systematic effort in the work of organization, partly owing to the pernicious influence of political Army. parties, and in times of national emergency it has never been in a condition of readiness. The experience of the war of 1897 proved the need of far-reaching administrative changes and disciplinary reforms. A scheme of complete reorganization was subsequently elaborated under the auspices of the crown prince Constantine, the commander-in-chief, and received the assent of the Chamber in June 1904. During the war of 1897 about 65,000 infantry, loon cavalry, and 24 batteries were put into the field, and after great efforts another 15,000 men were mobilized. Under the new scheme it is proposed to maintain on a peace footing 1887 officers, 25,140 non-commissioned officers and men, and 4059 horses and mules; in time of war the active army will consist of at least 120,000 men and the territorial army of at least 60,000 men. The heavy expenditure entailed by the project has been an obstacle to its immediate realization. In order to meet this expenditure a special fund has been instituted in addition to the ordinary military budget, and certain revenues have been assigned to it amounting to about 5,50o,000 drachmae annually. In 1906, however, it was decided to suspend partially for five years the operation of the law of 1904 and to devote the resources thus economized together with other funds to the immediate purchase of new armaments and equipment. Under this temporary arrangement the peace strength of the army in 1908 consisted of 1939 officers and civilians, 19,416 non - commissioned officers and men and 2661 horses and mules; it is calculated that the reserves will furnish about 77, 00 0 men and the territorial army about 37,000 men in time of war.

    Military service is obligatory, and liability to serve begins from the twenty-first year. The term of service comprises two years in the active army, ten years in the active army reserve (for cavalry eight years), eight years in the territorial army (for cavalry ten years) and ten years for all branches in the territorial army reserve. As a rule, however, the period of service in the active army has hitherto been considerably shortened; with a view to economy, the men, under the law of 1904, receive furlough after eighteen months with the colours. Exemptions from military service, which were previously very numerous, are also restricted considerably by the law of 1904, which will secure a yearly contingent of about 13,000 men in time of peace. The conscripts in excess of the yearly contingent are withdrawn by lot; they are required to receive six months' training in the ranks as supernumeraries before passing into the reserve, in which they form a special category of " liability " men. Under the temporary system of 1906 the contingent is reduced to about io,000 men by postponing the abrogation of several exemptions, and the period of service is fixed at fourteen months for all the conscripts alike. The field army as constituted by the law of 1904 consists of 3 divisions, each division comprising 2 brigades of infantry, each of 2 regiments of 3 battalions and other units. There are thus 36 battalions of infantry (of which 12 are cadres); also 6 battalions of evzones (highlanders), 18 squadrons of cavalry (6 cadres), 33 batteries of artillery (6 cadres), 3 battalions of engineers and telegraphists, 3 companies of ambulance, 3 of train, &c. The artillery is composed of 24 field batteries, 3 heavy and 6 mountain batteries; it is mainly provided with Krupp 7.5 cm. guns dating from 1870 or earlier. After a series of trials in 1907 it was decided to order 36 field batteries of 7.5 cm. quick-firing guns and 6 mountain batteries, in all 168 guns, with 1500 projectiles for each battery from the Creuzot factory. The infantry, which was hitherto armed with the obsolete Gras rifle ( 433 in.), was furnished in 1907 with the Mannlicher-Schonauer (model 1903) of which 100,000 had been delivered in May 1908. Hitherto the gendarmerie, which replaced the police, have formed a corps drawn from the army, which in 1908 consisted of 194 officers and 6344 non-commissioned officers and men, but a law passed in 1907 provided for these forces being thenceforth recruited separately by voluntary enlistment in annual contingents of 700 men. The participation of the officers in politics, which has proved very injurious to discipline, has been checked by a law forbidding officers below the rank of colonel to stand for the Chamber. In the elections of 1905 115 officers were candidates. The three divisional headquarters are at Larissa, Athens and Missolonghi; the six headquarters of brigades are at Trikkala, Larissa, Athens, Chalcis, Missolonghi and Nauplia. In 1907 annual manoeuvres were instituted.

    The Greek fleet consisted in 1907 of 3 armoured barbette ships of 4885 tons (built in France in 1890, reconstructed 1899), Navy. carrying each three io 8-in. guns, five 6-in., thirteen quick-firing and smaller guns, and three torpedo tubes; cruiser of 1770 tons (built in 1879), with two 6.7-in. and six light quick-firing guns; 1 armoured central battery ship of 1 774 tons (built 1867, reconstructed 1897) with two 8.4 in. and nine small quick-firing guns; 2 coast-defence gunboats with one 10.6-in. gun each; 4 corvettes; 1 torpedo depot ship; 8 destroyers, each with six guns (ordered in 1905); 3 transport steamers; 7 small gunboats; 3 mining boats; 5 torpedo boats; royal yacht; 2 school ships and various minor vessels. The personnel of the navy was composed in 1907 of 437 officers, 26 cadets, 1118 petty officers, 2372 seamen and stokers, 60 boys and 99 civilians, together with 386 artisans employed at the arsenal. The navy is manned chiefly by conscription; the period of service is two years, with four years in the reserve. The headquarters of the fleet and arsenal are in the island of Salamis, where there is a dockyard with naval stores, a floating dock and a torpedo school. Most of the vessels of the Greek fleet were in 1907 obsolete; in 1904 a commission under the presidency of Prince George proposed the rearmament of the existing ironclads and the purchase of three new ironclads and other vessels. A different scheme of reorganization, providing almost exclusively for submarines and scout vessels, was suggested to the government by the French admiral Fournier in 1908, but was opposed by the Greek naval officers. With a view to the augmentation and better equipment of the fleet a special fund was instituted in 1900 to which certain revenues have been assigned; it has been increased by various donations and bequests and by the proceeds of a state lottery. The fleet is not exercised methodically either in navigation or gunnery practice; a long voyage, however, was undertaken by the ironclad vessels in 1904. The Greeks, especially the islanders of the Aegean, make better sailors than soldiers; the personnel of the navy, if trained by foreign officers, might be brought to a high state of efficiency.

    The financial history of Greece has been unsatisfactory from the outset. Excessive military and naval expenditure (mainly due to repeated and hasty mobilizations), a lax and improvident system of administration, the corruption of political parties and the instability of the government, which has rendered impossible the continuous application of any scheme of fiscal reform - all alike have contributed to the economic ruin of the country. For a long series of years preceding the declaration of national insolvency in 1893 successive budgets presented a deficit, which in years of political excitement and military activity assumed enormous proportions: the shortcomings of the budget were supplied by the proceeds of foreign loans, or by means of advances obtained in the country at a high rate of interest. The two loans which had been contracted during the war of independence were extinguished by means of a conversion in 1889. Of the existing foreign loans the earliest is that of 60,000,000 frs., guaranteed by the three protecting powers in 1832; owing to the payment of interest and amortization by the powers, the capital amounted in 1871 to 100,392,833 fr.; on this Greece pays an annual sum of 900,000 fr., of which 300,000 have been granted by the powers as a yearly subvention to King George. The only other existing foreign obligation of early date is the debt to the heirs of King Otho (4,500,000 dr.) contracted in 1868. A large amount of internal debt was incurred between 1848 and 1880, but a considerable proportion of this was redeemed with the proceeds of the foreign loans negotiated after this period. At the end of 1880 the entire national debt, external and internal, stood at 252,652,481 dr. In 1881 the era of great foreign loans began. In that year a 5% loan of 120,000,000 fr. was raised to defray the expenses of the mobilization of 1880. This was followed in 1884 by a 5% loan of 170,000,000 fr., of which 100,000,000 was actually issued. The service of these loans was guaranteed by various State revenues. A " patriotic loan " of 30,000,000 dr. without interest, issued during the war excitement of 1885, proved a failure, only 2,723,860 dr. being subscribed. In 1888 a 4% loan of 135,000,000 fr. was contracted, secured on the receipts of the five State monopolies, the management of which was entrusted to a privileged company. In the following year (1889) two 4% loans of 30,000,000 fr. and 125,000,000 fr. respectively were issued without guarantee or sinking fund; Greek credit had now apparently attained an established position in the foreign money market, but a decline of public confidence soon became evident. In 1890, of a 5% loan of 80,000,000 fr. effective, authorized for the construction of the Peiraeus-Larissa railway, only 40,050,000 fr. was taken up abroad and 12,900,000 fr. at home; large portions of the proceeds were devoted to other purposes. In 1892 the government was compelled to make large additions to the internal floating debt, and to borrow 16,500,000 fr. from the National Bank on onerous terms. In 1893 an effort to obtain a foreign loan for the reduction of the forced currency proved unsuccessful. (For the events leading up to the declaration of national bankruptcy in that year see under Recent History.) A funding convention was concluded in the summer, under which the creditors accepted scrip instead of cash payments of interest. A few months later this arrangement was reversed by the Chamber, and on the 13th December a law was passed assigning provisionally to all the foreign loans alike 30% of the stipulated interest; the reduced coupons were made payable in paper instead of gold, the sinking funds were suspended, and the sums encashed by the monopoly company were confiscated. The causes of the financial catastrophe may be briefly summarized as follows: (1) The military preparations of 1885-1886, with the attendant disorganization of the country; the extraordinary expenditure of these years amounted to 1 3 0 ,9 8 7,77 2 dr. (2) Excessive borrowing abroad, involving a charge for the service of foreign loans altogether disproportionate to the revenue. (3) Remissness in the collection of taxation: the total loss through arrears in a period of ten years (1882-1891) was 3 6 ,549, 202 dr., being in the main attributable to non-payment of direct taxes. (4) The adverse balance of trade, largely due to the neglected condition of agriculture; in the five years preceding the crisis (1888-1892) the exports were stated to amount to £ 19,578,973, while the imports reached £24,890,146; foreign live stock and cereals being imported to the amount of £6,193,579. The proximate cause of the crisis was the rise in the exchange owing to the excessive amount of paper money in circulation. Forced currency was first introduced in 1868, when 15,000,000 dr. in paper money was issued; it was abolished in the following year, but reintroduced in 1877 with a paper issue of 44,000,000 dr. It was abolished a second time in 1884, but again put into circulation in 1885, when paper loans to the amount of 45,000,000 dr. were authorized. In 1893 the total authorized forced currency was 146,000,000 dr., of which 88,000,000 (including 14,000,000 dr. in small notes)was on account of the government. The gold and silver coinage had practically disappeared from circulation. The rate of exchange, as a rule, varies directly with the amount of paper money in circulation, but, owing to speculation, it is liable to violent fluctuations whenever there is an exceptional demand for gold in the market. In 1893 the gold franc stood at the ratio of 1.60 to the paper drachma; the service of the foreign loans required upwards of 31,000,000 dr. in gold, and any attempt to realize this sum in the market would have involved an outlay equivalent to at least half the budget. With the failure of the projected loan for the withdrawal of the forced currency repudiation became inevitable. The law of the 13th of December was not recognized by the national creditors: prolonged negotiations followed, but no arrangement was arrived at till 1897, when the intervention of the powers after the war with Turkey furnished the opportunity for a definite settlement. It was stipulated that Turkey should receive an indemnity of £T4,000,000 contingent on the evacuation of Thessaly; in order to secure the payment of this sum by Greece without prejudice to the interests of her creditors, and to enable the country to recover from the economic consequences of the war, Great Britain, France and Russia undertook to guarantee a 22% loan of 170,000,000 fr., of which 150,000,000 fr. has been issued. By the preliminary treaty of peace (18th of September 1897) an International Financial Commission, composed of six representatives of the powers, was charged with the payment of the indemnity to Turkey, and with " absolute control " over the collection and employment of revenues sufficient for the service of the foreign debt. A law defining the powers of the Commission was passed by the Chamber, 26th of February 1898 (o.s.). The revenues assigned to its supervision were the five government monopolies, the tobacco and stamp duties, and the import duties of Peiraeus (total annual value estimated at 39,600,000 dr.): the collection was entrusted to a Greek society, which is under the absolute control of the Commission. The returns of Peiraeus customs (estimated at 10,700,000 dr.) are regarded as an extra guarantee, and are handed over to the Greek government; when the produce of the other revenues exceeds 28,900,000 dr. the " plus value " or surplus is divided in the proportion of 50-8% to the Greek government and 49.2% to the creditors. The plus values amounted to 3,301,481 dr. in 18 9 8, 3,533,755 dr. in 1899, and 3,442,713 dr. in 1900. Simultaneously with the establishment of the control the interest for the Monopoly Loan was fixed at 43%, for the Funding Loan at 40%, and for the other loans at 32% of the original interest. With the revenues at its disposal the International Commission has already been enabled to make certain augmentations in the service of the foreign debt; since 1900 it has begun to take measures for the reduction of the forced currency, of which 2,000,000 dr. will be annually bought up and destroyed till the amount in circulation is reduced to 40,000,000 dr. On the 1st of January 1901 the authorized paper issue was 264,000,000 dr., of which 92,000,000 (including 18,000,000 in fractional currency) was on account of the government; the amount in actual circulation was 148,619,618 dr. On the 31st of July 1906 the paper issue had been reduced to 152,775,975 dr., and the amount in circulation was 124,668,057 dr. The financial commission retains its powers until the extinction of all the foreign loans contracted since 1881. Though its activity is mainly limited to the administration of the assigned revenues, it has exercised a beneficial influence over the whole domain of Greek finance; the effect may be observed in the greatly enhanced value of Greek securities since its institution, averaging 25.76% in 1906. No change can be made in its composition or working without the consent of the six powers, and none of the officials employed in the collection of the revenues subject to its control can be dismissed or transferred without its consent. It thus constitutes an element of stability and order which cannot fail to react on the general administration. It is unable, however, to control the expenditure or to assert any direct influence over the government, with which the responsibility still rests for an improved system of collection, a more efficient staff of functionaries and the repression of smuggling. The country has shown a remarkable vitality in recovering from the disasters of 1897, and should it in future obtain a respite from paroxysms of military and political excitement, its financial regeneration will be assured.

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  3. ΔΕ ΜΑΣ ΓΑΜΑΣ ΡΕ ΦΙΛΕ.
    KATI TETOIOI ΤΥΠΟΙ ΔΙΝΟΥΝ ΔΙΚΑΙΩΜΑΤΑ ΣΤΟΥΣ ΕΧΘΡΟΥΣ ΤΟΥ ΣΑΙΤ.

    ΑΡΩΝΗ (ΑΜΑ ΣΕ ΛΕΝΕ ΕΤΣΙ ) ΕΙΣΑΙ ΜΕΓΑΛΟΣ ΜΑΛΑΚΑΣ.

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  4. Εγώ προχθές ήμουνα σε ένα θείο μου κτηνίατρο και τον πήρε ένας συνεργάτης του και του είπε οτι μια σκύλα γέννησε 8 κουταβάκια με ανθρώπινο κεφάλι. Αλλά δεν το δημοσιοποιούν για να μη γίνει πανικός.

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  5. Εμενα μου το είπε χασάπης μου (σοβαρά μιλάω), ο οποίος, όπως κάθε Έλλην που σέβεται τον εαυτό του, έχει "γνωστό" στην ΕΥΔΑΠ....
    Θεέ μου σε τι χώρα ζούμε?

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  6. ΤΙ ΠΑΠΑΡΙΑ ΕΙΝΑΙ ΑΥΤΗ??? ΝΤΡΟΠΗ ΡΕ ΠΑΠΑΡΟΛΟΓΟΙ!


    ΚΑΙ ΓΙΑ ΝΑ ΤΕΛΕΙΩΝΟΥΜΕ:
    Υπάρχουν δεκάδες πιστοποιημένα ιδιωτικά χημικά εργαστήρια, ανοίξτε τον τηλεφωνικό κατάλογο και θα βρείτε αρκετά. Πείτε τους να ανοίξουν τη βρύση τους και να κάνουν μιά ανάλυση, πληρώστε το αντίτιμο (δεν είναι ακριβό, κοστίζει περίπου όσο δυό επισκέψεις σε καλό γιατρό) και βγάλτε συμπέρασμα.
    ΜΕΧΡΙ ΤΟΤΕ, ΑΦΗΣΤΕ ΤΗΝ ΠΑΠΑΡΟΛΟΓΙΑ!!!!!!!!!!!!!

    Υ.Γ. σεισμός τί ώρα θα γίνει;

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  7. ΝΤΡΟΠΉ!!! ΝΤΡΟΠΉ!!!! ΝΤΡΟΠΉ!!!!!!

    ΝΤΡΟΠΉ!!! ΝΤΡΟΠΉ!!!! ΝΤΡΟΠΉ!!!!!!

    ΝΤΡΟΠΉ!!! ΝΤΡΟΠΉ!!!! ΝΤΡΟΠΉ!!!!!!

    ΝΤΡΟΠΉ!!! ΝΤΡΟΠΉ!!!! ΝΤΡΟΠΉ!!!!!!

    ΝΤΡΟΠΉ!!! ΝΤΡΟΠΉ!!!! ΝΤΡΟΠΉ!!!!!!

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  8. ΝΕΡΟ ΜΕ ΚΑΡΑΜΑΝΛΙΟΝ

    ΚΟΨΤΕ ΤΟ ΝΕΡΟ





    ΝΕΡΟ ΜΕ ΚΑΡΑΜΑΝΛΙΟΝ

    ΚΟΨΤΕ ΤΟ ΝΕΡΟ







    ΝΕΡΟ ΜΕ ΚΑΡΑΜΑΝΛΙΟΝ

    ΚΟΨΤΕ ΤΟ ΝΕΡΟ







    ΝΕΡΟ ΜΕ ΚΑΡΑΜΑΝΛΙΟΝ

    ΚΟΨΤΕ ΤΟ ΝΕΡΟ







    ΝΕΡΟ ΜΕ ΚΑΡΑΜΑΝΛΙΟΝ

    ΚΟΨΤΕ ΤΟ ΝΕΡΟ

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  9. Οι Σκοπιανοί το έριξαν για να μεταλλαχτούμε και να χάσουμε τα χαρακτηριστικά της Άρειας Φυλής των Μακεδωνόκαβλων.

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  10. Ο ΑΕΡΑΣ ΕΙΝΑΙ ΜΟΛΥΣΜΕΝΟΣ ΑΠΟ ΔΕΞΙΟΝ




    Ο ΑΕΡΑΣ ΕΙΝΑΙ ΜΟΛΥΣΜΕΝΟΣ ΑΠΟ ΔΕΞΙΟΝ






    Ο ΑΕΡΑΣ ΕΙΝΑΙ ΜΟΛΥΣΜΕΝΟΣ ΑΠΟ ΔΕΞΙΟΝ

    ΑπάντησηΔιαγραφή
  11. Τι άλλη μαλακία θα ακούσουμε???? Και εντάξει, υπάρχουν και κάποιοι που σκέφτονται και γελάνε με αυτές τις παπάρες...Αλλά ρε γελοίοι, σκεφτείτε και κάποιους ηλικιωμένους ή αγράμματους ανθρώπους, που τρομοκρατούνται με όλα αυτά λόγω άγνοιας και ημιμάθειας...ΕΛΕΟΣ με τους κινδυνολόγους!!! 10 ρίχτερ στην Ελλάδα ο ένας, πλουτώνιο στο νερό ο άλλος...Τι άλλο θα ακούσουμε ρε γαμώτο, καλά, τα θέλετε και τα λέτε ή σας ξεφεύγουν???

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  12. ΑΠΟ ΑΥΡΙΟ ΝΕΡΟ ΜΕ ΤΟ ΔΕΛΤΙΟ - ΚΑΘΕ 2 ΩΡΕΣ ΑΝΟΙΓΕΤΕ ΤΗ ΒΡΥΣΗ!!

    ΑΠΟ ΑΥΡΙΟ ΝΕΡΟ ΜΕ ΤΟ ΔΕΛΤΙΟ - ΚΑΘΕ 2 ΩΡΕΣ ΑΝΟΙΓΕΤΕ ΤΗ ΒΡΥΣΗ!!

    ΑΠΟ ΑΥΡΙΟ ΝΕΡΟ ΜΕ ΤΟ ΔΕΛΤΙΟ - ΚΑΘΕ 2 ΩΡΕΣ ΑΝΟΙΓΕΤΕ ΤΗ ΒΡΥΣΗ!!

    ΑΠΟ ΑΥΡΙΟ ΝΕΡΟ ΜΕ ΤΟ ΔΕΛΤΙΟ - ΚΑΘΕ 2 ΩΡΕΣ ΑΝΟΙΓΕΤΕ ΤΗ ΒΡΥΣΗ!!

    ΑΠΟ ΑΥΡΙΟ ΝΕΡΟ ΜΕ ΤΟ ΔΕΛΤΙΟ - ΚΑΘΕ 2 ΩΡΕΣ ΑΝΟΙΓΕΤΕ ΤΗ ΒΡΥΣΗ!!

    ΑΠΟ ΑΥΡΙΟ ΝΕΡΟ ΜΕ ΤΟ ΔΕΛΤΙΟ - ΚΑΘΕ 2 ΩΡΕΣ ΑΝΟΙΓΕΤΕ ΤΗ ΒΡΥΣΗ!!

    ΑΠΟ ΑΥΡΙΟ ΝΕΡΟ ΜΕ ΤΟ ΔΕΛΤΙΟ - ΚΑΘΕ 2 ΩΡΕΣ ΑΝΟΙΓΕΤΕ ΤΗ ΒΡΥΣΗ!!

    ΑΠΟ ΑΥΡΙΟ ΝΕΡΟ ΜΕ ΤΟ ΔΕΛΤΙΟ - ΚΑΘΕ 2 ΩΡΕΣ ΑΝΟΙΓΕΤΕ ΤΗ ΒΡΥΣΗ!!

    ΑΠΟ ΑΥΡΙΟ ΝΕΡΟ ΜΕ ΤΟ ΔΕΛΤΙΟ - ΚΑΘΕ 2 ΩΡΕΣ ΑΝΟΙΓΕΤΕ ΤΗ ΒΡΥΣΗ!!

    ΑΠΟ ΑΥΡΙΟ ΝΕΡΟ ΜΕ ΤΟ ΔΕΛΤΙΟ - ΚΑΘΕ 2 ΩΡΕΣ ΑΝΟΙΓΕΤΕ ΤΗ ΒΡΥΣΗ!!

    ΑΠΟ ΑΥΡΙΟ ΝΕΡΟ ΜΕ ΤΟ ΔΕΛΤΙΟ - ΚΑΘΕ 2 ΩΡΕΣ ΑΝΟΙΓΕΤΕ ΤΗ ΒΡΥΣΗ!!

    ΑΠΟ ΑΥΡΙΟ ΝΕΡΟ ΜΕ ΤΟ ΔΕΛΤΙΟ - ΚΑΘΕ 2 ΩΡΕΣ ΑΝΟΙΓΕΤΕ ΤΗ ΒΡΥΣΗ!!

    ΑΠΟ ΑΥΡΙΟ ΝΕΡΟ ΜΕ ΤΟ ΔΕΛΤΙΟ - ΚΑΘΕ 2 ΩΡΕΣ ΑΝΟΙΓΕΤΕ ΤΗ ΒΡΥΣΗ!!

    ΑΠΟ ΑΥΡΙΟ ΝΕΡΟ ΜΕ ΤΟ ΔΕΛΤΙΟ - ΚΑΘΕ 2 ΩΡΕΣ ΑΝΟΙΓΕΤΕ ΤΗ ΒΡΥΣΗ!!

    ΑΠΟ ΑΥΡΙΟ ΝΕΡΟ ΜΕ ΤΟ ΔΕΛΤΙΟ - ΚΑΘΕ 2 ΩΡΕΣ ΑΝΟΙΓΕΤΕ ΤΗ ΒΡΥΣΗ!!

    ΑΠΟ ΑΥΡΙΟ ΝΕΡΟ ΜΕ ΤΟ ΔΕΛΤΙΟ - ΚΑΘΕ 2 ΩΡΕΣ ΑΝΟΙΓΕΤΕ ΤΗ ΒΡΥΣΗ!!

    ΑΠΟ ΑΥΡΙΟ ΝΕΡΟ ΜΕ ΤΟ ΔΕΛΤΙΟ - ΚΑΘΕ 2 ΩΡΕΣ ΑΝΟΙΓΕΤΕ ΤΗ ΒΡΥΣΗ!!

    ΑΠΟ ΑΥΡΙΟ ΝΕΡΟ ΜΕ ΤΟ ΔΕΛΤΙΟ - ΚΑΘΕ 2 ΩΡΕΣ ΑΝΟΙΓΕΤΕ ΤΗ ΒΡΥΣΗ!!

    ΑΠΟ ΑΥΡΙΟ ΝΕΡΟ ΜΕ ΤΟ ΔΕΛΤΙΟ - ΚΑΘΕ 2 ΩΡΕΣ ΑΝΟΙΓΕΤΕ ΤΗ ΒΡΥΣΗ!!

    ΑΠΟ ΑΥΡΙΟ ΝΕΡΟ ΜΕ ΤΟ ΔΕΛΤΙΟ - ΚΑΘΕ 2 ΩΡΕΣ ΑΝΟΙΓΕΤΕ ΤΗ ΒΡΥΣΗ!!

    ΑΠΟ ΑΥΡΙΟ ΝΕΡΟ ΜΕ ΤΟ ΔΕΛΤΙΟ - ΚΑΘΕ 2 ΩΡΕΣ ΑΝΟΙΓΕΤΕ ΤΗ ΒΡΥΣΗ!!

    ΑΠΟ ΑΥΡΙΟ ΝΕΡΟ ΜΕ ΤΟ ΔΕΛΤΙΟ - ΚΑΘΕ 2 ΩΡΕΣ ΑΝΟΙΓΕΤΕ ΤΗ ΒΡΥΣΗ!!

    ΑΠΟ ΑΥΡΙΟ ΝΕΡΟ ΜΕ ΤΟ ΔΕΛΤΙΟ - ΚΑΘΕ 2 ΩΡΕΣ ΑΝΟΙΓΕΤΕ ΤΗ ΒΡΥΣΗ!!

    ΑΠΟ ΑΥΡΙΟ ΝΕΡΟ ΜΕ ΤΟ ΔΕΛΤΙΟ - ΚΑΘΕ 2 ΩΡΕΣ ΑΝΟΙΓΕΤΕ ΤΗ ΒΡΥΣΗ!!

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  13. Υπάρχει σοβαρός εισαγγελέας να επέμβει στην διασπορά ψευδών ειδήσεων και την πρόκληση πανικού;


    Προσοχή: αυτός που ανέβασε την κλαπαρχιδιά αυτή είναι Ο ΔΙΑΧΕΙΡΙΣΤΗΣ ΤΟΥ PRESS-GR που διαθέτει και τους κωδικούς διαχείρισης της ιστοσελίδας, και έχει ΠΛΗΡΗ ΕΥΘΥΝΗ ΓΙΑ ΑΥΤΑ ΠΟΥ ΑΝΕΒΑΖΕΙ.

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  14. ΤΟ ΝΕΡΟ ΤΗΣ ΕΥΔΑΠ ΕΙΝΑΙ ΜΟΛΥΣΜΕΝΟ
    ΜΕ ΔΕΞΙΟΝ-ΚΑΡΑΜΑΝΛΙΟΝ


    ΠΙΝΕΤΕ ΕΜΦΙΑΛΩΜΕΝΟ ΓΕΜΑΤΟ
    ΓΑΠ-ΙΟΝ-ΠΑΣΟΚΙΟΝ ΓΙΑ ΜΑΚΡΟΖΩΙΑ.









    ΤΟ ΝΕΡΟ ΤΗΣ ΕΥΔΑΠ ΕΙΝΑΙ ΜΟΛΥΣΜΕΝΟ
    ΜΕ ΔΕΞΙΟΝ-ΚΑΡΑΜΑΝΛΙΟΝ


    ΠΙΝΕΤΕ ΕΜΦΙΑΛΩΜΕΝΟ ΓΕΜΑΤΟ
    ΓΑΠ-ΙΟΝ-ΠΑΣΟΚΙΟΝ ΓΙΑ ΜΑΚΡΟΖΩΙΑ







    ΤΟ ΝΕΡΟ ΤΗΣ ΕΥΔΑΠ ΕΙΝΑΙ ΜΟΛΥΣΜΕΝΟ
    ΜΕ ΔΕΞΙΟΝ-ΚΑΡΑΜΑΝΛΙΟΝ


    ΠΙΝΕΤΕ ΕΜΦΙΑΛΩΜΕΝΟ ΓΕΜΑΤΟ
    ΓΑΠ-ΙΟΝ-ΠΑΣΟΚΙΟΝ ΓΙΑ ΜΑΚΡΟΖΩΙΑ










    ΤΟ ΝΕΡΟ ΤΗΣ ΕΥΔΑΠ ΕΙΝΑΙ ΜΟΛΥΣΜΕΝΟ
    ΜΕ ΔΕΞΙΟΝ-ΚΑΡΑΜΑΝΛΙΟΝ


    ΠΙΝΕΤΕ ΕΜΦΙΑΛΩΜΕΝΟ ΓΕΜΑΤΟ
    ΓΑΠ-ΙΟΝ-ΠΑΣΟΚΙΟΝ ΓΙΑ ΜΑΚΡΟΖΩΙΑ

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  15. ΤΕΛΙΚΑ ΜΑΣ ΨΕΚΑΖΟΥΝ Η ΟΧΙ;

    ΑΥΤΟ ΕΙΝΑΙ ΤΟ ΘΕΜΑ.

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  16. εάν δε εισέλθει το μολυσμένο με πλουτώνιο ύδωρ εντός του σώματός μας, τότε ίσως επηρεάσει και το σπέρμα της φυλής και παραχθούν επιτέλους πυρηνικά Ελληνάκια!!! Ζήτω η ΕΥΔΑΠ!!! Ζήτω η χώρα του μαλάκα!!!

    ΑπάντησηΔιαγραφή
  17. Μηπως το νερο που πινεις μολυνθηκε με βλακονιο 147?Αλλιως Δεν εξηγουνται οι πιπες που αραδιαζεις...Πες στη θεια πριν πεσεις για υπνο να σου δωσει κανα στεντον...θα καταλαβει αυτη

    ΑπάντησηΔιαγραφή
  18. ΜΕ ΤΟΥΣ ΨΕΚΑΣΜΟΥΣ ΠΟΥ ΛΕΝΕ ΚΑΙ ΣΤΑ ΡΑΔΙΟΦΩΝΑ, ΤΙ ΓΙΝΕΤΑΙ;

    μας ψεκαζουν ή οχι;

    ΑπάντησηΔιαγραφή
  19. Μάζιψα τα ζουντανά έβαλα κι πυτιά στου τυρί ήπια κ νερααααααάκ καθαρό.

    ΑπάντησηΔιαγραφή
  20. Βαριεμαι αποψε. Λεω να μετρησω την πουτσα μου.

    Ποσο λετε να ειναι;

    ΑπάντησηΔιαγραφή
  21. Μας ψεκάζουν αδέρφια!
    Μας ραντίζουν από παντού!

    Δεν εξηγείται αλλιώς τόση μαλακία μαζεμένη σε τόσα λίγα pixels.

    ΑπάντησηΔιαγραφή
  22. ε, εισαι βλακας αγορι μου!

    ΑπάντησηΔιαγραφή
  23. Μας ψεκαζουν με ΕΛΛΗΝΙΟΝ και ΜΑΚΕΔΟΝΙΟΝ!Αυξανει τον πατριωτισμο κατα 160%...Μεγαλωνει,μεγαλωνει γερα παιδια

    ΑπάντησηΔιαγραφή
  24. Εγώ ήμουνα προχτές σε μια καφετζού και μου είπε οτι θα κερδίσω το τζόκερ.

    Άει στο διάολο ρε μαλάκα που διασπείρεις τον πανικό - άντε στη θειά σου να σε κοιτάξει καλύτερα μπας και σου δώσει κανένα στεντον και ξεραθείς.

    ΑπάντησηΔιαγραφή
  25. Ήμουνα προ ημερών κάπου με κάποια γκόμενα σε κάποιο κρεββάτι και κάπως πηδιόμαστουν όταν μου είπε απροσδόκητα ότι τον έχω κάπως τεράστιο.Μιλάω σοβαρά. Να προσέχετε.Δεν θα το ανακοινώσω,γιά να μη πέσει πανικός και
    μουνοθύ--έλλα όπως είσαι!

    ΑπάντησηΔιαγραφή
  26. re file 6 Μάρτιος 2008 11:38 μμ pou exeis aplwsei ti mpougada tou xwriou sou ekei panw (milame gia polu sentoni)

    GIATI DE MAS DINEIS TO LINK NA TELEIWNOYME?

    ki exoume pathei tenontitida apo to scroll down

    ΑπάντησηΔιαγραφή
  27. Apo ayrio to nero tha exei ypsila gia thn epoxh epipeda poustrwniou 28a. Prosoxh aderfia, mas vlepw na to mastigwnume to delfini!!!

    ΑπάντησηΔιαγραφή
  28. ΝΑ ΔΟΘΟΥΝ ΣΤΗ ΔΗΜΟΣΙΟΤΗΤΑ ΟΙ ΜΙΣΘΟΙ ΤΩΝ ΣΥΝΔΙΚΑΛΙΣΤΩΝ ΔΕΗ ΚΑΙ ΟΙ ΩΡΕΣ ΕΡΓΑΣΙΑΣ ΤΟΥΣ.

    ΝΑ ΔΟΘΟΥΝ ΣΤΗ ΔΗΜΟΣΙΟΤΗΤΑ ΟΙ ΜΙΣΘΟΙ ΤΩΝ ΣΥΝΔΙΚΑΛΙΣΤΩΝ ΔΕΗ ΚΑΙ ΟΙ ΩΡΕΣ ΕΡΓΑΣΙΑΣ ΤΟΥΣ.

    ΝΑ ΔΟΘΟΥΝ ΣΤΗ ΔΗΜΟΣΙΟΤΗΤΑ ΟΙ ΜΙΣΘΟΙ ΤΩΝ ΣΥΝΔΙΚΑΛΙΣΤΩΝ ΔΕΗ ΚΑΙ ΟΙ ΩΡΕΣ ΕΡΓΑΣΙΑΣ ΤΟΥΣ.

    ΝΑ ΔΟΘΟΥΝ ΣΤΗ ΔΗΜΟΣΙΟΤΗΤΑ ΟΙ ΜΙΣΘΟΙ ΤΩΝ ΣΥΝΔΙΚΑΛΙΣΤΩΝ ΔΕΗ ΚΑΙ ΟΙ ΩΡΕΣ ΕΡΓΑΣΙΑΣ ΤΟΥΣ.

    ΝΑ ΔΟΘΟΥΝ ΣΤΗ ΔΗΜΟΣΙΟΤΗΤΑ ΟΙ ΜΙΣΘΟΙ ΤΩΝ ΣΥΝΔΙΚΑΛΙΣΤΩΝ ΔΕΗ ΚΑΙ ΟΙ ΩΡΕΣ ΕΡΓΑΣΙΑΣ ΤΟΥΣ.

    ΝΑ ΔΟΘΟΥΝ ΣΤΗ ΔΗΜΟΣΙΟΤΗΤΑ ΟΙ ΜΙΣΘΟΙ ΤΩΝ ΣΥΝΔΙΚΑΛΙΣΤΩΝ ΔΕΗ ΚΑΙ ΟΙ ΩΡΕΣ ΕΡΓΑΣΙΑΣ ΤΟΥΣ.

    ΝΑ ΔΟΘΟΥΝ ΣΤΗ ΔΗΜΟΣΙΟΤΗΤΑ ΟΙ ΜΙΣΘΟΙ ΤΩΝ ΣΥΝΔΙΚΑΛΙΣΤΩΝ ΔΕΗ ΚΑΙ ΟΙ ΩΡΕΣ ΕΡΓΑΣΙΑΣ ΤΟΥΣ.

    ΝΑ ΔΟΘΟΥΝ ΣΤΗ ΔΗΜΟΣΙΟΤΗΤΑ ΟΙ ΜΙΣΘΟΙ ΤΩΝ ΣΥΝΔΙΚΑΛΙΣΤΩΝ ΔΕΗ ΚΑΙ ΟΙ ΩΡΕΣ ΕΡΓΑΣΙΑΣ ΤΟΥΣ.

    ΝΑ ΔΟΘΟΥΝ ΣΤΗ ΔΗΜΟΣΙΟΤΗΤΑ ΟΙ ΜΙΣΘΟΙ ΤΩΝ ΣΥΝΔΙΚΑΛΙΣΤΩΝ ΔΕΗ ΚΑΙ ΟΙ ΩΡΕΣ ΕΡΓΑΣΙΑΣ ΤΟΥΣ.

    ΝΑ ΔΟΘΟΥΝ ΣΤΗ ΔΗΜΟΣΙΟΤΗΤΑ ΟΙ ΜΙΣΘΟΙ ΤΩΝ ΣΥΝΔΙΚΑΛΙΣΤΩΝ ΔΕΗ ΚΑΙ ΟΙ ΩΡΕΣ ΕΡΓΑΣΙΑΣ ΤΟΥΣ.

    ΝΑ ΔΟΘΟΥΝ ΣΤΗ ΔΗΜΟΣΙΟΤΗΤΑ ΟΙ ΜΙΣΘΟΙ ΤΩΝ ΣΥΝΔΙΚΑΛΙΣΤΩΝ ΔΕΗ ΚΑΙ ΟΙ ΩΡΕΣ ΕΡΓΑΣΙΑΣ ΤΟΥΣ.

    ΝΑ ΔΟΘΟΥΝ ΣΤΗ ΔΗΜΟΣΙΟΤΗΤΑ ΟΙ ΜΙΣΘΟΙ ΤΩΝ ΣΥΝΔΙΚΑΛΙΣΤΩΝ ΔΕΗ ΚΑΙ ΟΙ ΩΡΕΣ ΕΡΓΑΣΙΑΣ ΤΟΥΣ.

    ΝΑ ΔΟΘΟΥΝ ΣΤΗ ΔΗΜΟΣΙΟΤΗΤΑ ΟΙ ΜΙΣΘΟΙ ΤΩΝ ΣΥΝΔΙΚΑΛΙΣΤΩΝ ΔΕΗ ΚΑΙ ΟΙ ΩΡΕΣ ΕΡΓΑΣΙΑΣ ΤΟΥΣ.

    ΝΑ ΔΟΘΟΥΝ ΣΤΗ ΔΗΜΟΣΙΟΤΗΤΑ ΟΙ ΜΙΣΘΟΙ ΤΩΝ ΣΥΝΔΙΚΑΛΙΣΤΩΝ ΔΕΗ ΚΑΙ ΟΙ ΩΡΕΣ ΕΡΓΑΣΙΑΣ ΤΟΥΣ.

    ΝΑ ΔΟΘΟΥΝ ΣΤΗ ΔΗΜΟΣΙΟΤΗΤΑ ΟΙ ΜΙΣΘΟΙ ΤΩΝ ΣΥΝΔΙΚΑΛΙΣΤΩΝ ΔΕΗ ΚΑΙ ΟΙ ΩΡΕΣ ΕΡΓΑΣΙΑΣ ΤΟΥΣ.

    ΑπάντησηΔιαγραφή
  29. Αγαπημενα αλητακια Bloopers...

    Σας μιλά μια Καναδεζα (γεννημένη και αποφοιτη πανεπιστημιου του Τοροντο)η οποία γνωρίζει πολυ καλα τους Ελληνες του εξωτερικου και δη του Καναδα!!
    Μαλλον μπερδευτηκατε και επρεπε να λεγεστε Blobers ...δηλαδη κουραδες πτηνων... γιατι μονο άνθρωποι με σκατα στο μυαλό τους, η αγνοια λογω της μιζερης ξενιτιάς, η βαρειά προσηλωση σε νοοτροπια γκετο, μπορουν ναισχυρίζονται ότι ολοι οι μορφωμενοι μαζευτηκαν στην ΔΕΗ, σε λιγο θα μας πειτε να κανουμε και τη ΔΕΗ πανεπιστημιο!! ελεος!
    Θα θελα να δω ρε μαλακες, αν σαν φοιτητες αναγκαζοσασταν να πληρωνατε utιlities στα σπιτια που μενετε της ταξεως των 200 usd τι θα λέγατε!! PATHETIC Danforth residents....ζειτε σ ενα κρατος που εχετε 1ης ταξης μορφωση και πληρωνετε 1500 δολ. διδακτρα σε κορυφαια πανεπιστημια και εχετε και δωρεαν ασφαλιση...! Σας ασφαλιζει το Καναδικό Κρατος για να μπορειτε να λετε ολες αυτες τις μαλακίες?
    Επειδη...ξερω πως ειναι οι Ελληνες του Καναδα και τη γλώσσα τους δεν την βγαζουν τοσο εξω.. Μου φαινεστε περισσοτερο για αναρχοφασιστοκομμουνιστακια...που η μαλακια εχει σφηνωσει σαν τον καρκινο εκει που μονο μια επεμβαση μπορει να σας σωσει!! Τσογλανια...θα βγειτε στη ζωή και θα δουλεψτε αργα η γρηγορα...και τοτε θα δω την σκατομαγκια σας!!
    Αν ειστε ακομα Καναδα...περναει μια υφεσηηηηηηη...μουρλια... Σκατομαγκες ζειτε στο πολιτισμό και τολματε να μας κρίνετε? Αν έχετε κατι αναμεσα στα σκελια σας, βάλτε τσιγκινα σοβρακακια και ελατε αγορακια μου εδω, στην χωρα της ΔΕΗ να δειτε τι εστι κοκο... σαν κλαμμενες αδελφες θα γυριστε στο σπιτακι σας και στη ποδιά της μανουλας σας!!
    ΟΥΣΤ ΚΟΥΡΑΔΟΜΑΓΚΕΣ!

    7 Μάρτιος 2008 12:09 πμ










    Αγαπημενα αλητακια Bloopers...

    Σας μιλά μια Καναδεζα (γεννημένη και αποφοιτη πανεπιστημιου του Τοροντο)η οποία γνωρίζει πολυ καλα τους Ελληνες του εξωτερικου και δη του Καναδα!!
    Μαλλον μπερδευτηκατε και επρεπε να λεγεστε Blobers ...δηλαδη κουραδες πτηνων... γιατι μονο άνθρωποι με σκατα στο μυαλό τους, η αγνοια λογω της μιζερης ξενιτιάς, η βαρειά προσηλωση σε νοοτροπια γκετο, μπορουν ναισχυρίζονται ότι ολοι οι μορφωμενοι μαζευτηκαν στην ΔΕΗ, σε λιγο θα μας πειτε να κανουμε και τη ΔΕΗ πανεπιστημιο!! ελεος!
    Θα θελα να δω ρε μαλακες, αν σαν φοιτητες αναγκαζοσασταν να πληρωνατε utιlities στα σπιτια που μενετε της ταξεως των 200 usd τι θα λέγατε!! PATHETIC Danforth residents....ζειτε σ ενα κρατος που εχετε 1ης ταξης μορφωση και πληρωνετε 1500 δολ. διδακτρα σε κορυφαια πανεπιστημια και εχετε και δωρεαν ασφαλιση...! Σας ασφαλιζει το Καναδικό Κρατος για να μπορειτε να λετε ολες αυτες τις μαλακίες?
    Επειδη...ξερω πως ειναι οι Ελληνες του Καναδα και τη γλώσσα τους δεν την βγαζουν τοσο εξω.. Μου φαινεστε περισσοτερο για αναρχοφασιστοκομμουνιστακια...που η μαλακια εχει σφηνωσει σαν τον καρκινο εκει που μονο μια επεμβαση μπορει να σας σωσει!! Τσογλανια...θα βγειτε στη ζωή και θα δουλεψτε αργα η γρηγορα...και τοτε θα δω την σκατομαγκια σας!!
    Αν ειστε ακομα Καναδα...περναει μια υφεσηηηηηηη...μουρλια... Σκατομαγκες ζειτε στο πολιτισμό και τολματε να μας κρίνετε? Αν έχετε κατι αναμεσα στα σκελια σας, βάλτε τσιγκινα σοβρακακια και ελατε αγορακια μου εδω, στην χωρα της ΔΕΗ να δειτε τι εστι κοκο... σαν κλαμμενες αδελφες θα γυριστε στο σπιτακι σας και στη ποδιά της μανουλας σας!!
    ΟΥΣΤ ΚΟΥΡΑΔΟΜΑΓΚΕΣ!

    7 Μάρτιος 2008 12:09 πμ





    ..................

    MIA XAΡΑ ΣΑΣ ΤΗΝ ΛΕΕΙ ΡΕ ΦΑΙΣΙΣΤΟΒLOOPERS Η ΚΟΠΕΛΑ!!

    ΣΑΣ ΕΧΟΥΝ ΠΑΡΕΙ ΧΑΜΠΑΡΙ ΟΛΟΙ ΤΙ ΠΡΟΠΑΓΑΝΔΑ ΤΟΥ ΚΕΡΑΤΑ ΕΙΣΤΕ.

    ΑπάντησηΔιαγραφή
  30. a re paidia eimai kai xalia apopse kai gelasa me ta peri karamanlioou kai GAPiou kai ta sxetika!

    Na ste kala!

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  31. Στον τελικό σταθμό κατανομής νερού στην Αττική στον τριτογενή έλεγχο η ΕΥΔΑΠ χρησιμοποιεί πέστροφες.

    Η πέστροφα ψοφάει από το βρώμικο νερό . Ο αθηναίος όμως όχι.

    ΑπάντησηΔιαγραφή
  32. Αγαπητοί και εξαιρετικοί μου φίλοι,


    Σημαντικά νέα και διαπιστώσεις πάντα.

    Εμείς, οι ομοφυλόφιλοι της δημοκρατικής παράταξης του ηγέτη Γιώργου Ανδρέα Παπανδρέου, έχουμε κόψει το νερό. Πίνουμε μόνο σπέρμα.


    Πάντα με εκτίμηση,
    babis

    ΑπάντησηΔιαγραφή
  33. Μα, με τι μας ψεκάζουν επιτέλους;

    ΑπάντησηΔιαγραφή
  34. Κανένα ξέκωλο υπάρχει απόψε να το γαμήσω;

    Με εκτίμηση
    τζων

    ΑπάντησηΔιαγραφή
  35. XAXAXXAXAXAXA
    GAMHSE O babis

    ΑπάντησηΔιαγραφή
  36. Η ωρα του παιδιου εχει αρχισει , μπορειτε ανετα να αναρτησεται οτι μαλακια σας τη βαραει κατακεφαλα απο τη πολυ μαλακια που τρωτε απο τα καναλια και τη ζωη γενικα , ωστε να ξεχαρμανιασετε και να μπορεσετε να επιστρεψετε υγιεις πλεον στις κυριες απασχολησεις σας και προσοχη μονο με σοφλαν , ολα τα αλλα αφηνουνε σημαδια στον εγκεφαλο , και το πανικονιο και το μαλακονιο με μετρο μη βγαλετε και καενενα ματι με τις πιπες

    ΑπάντησηΔιαγραφή
  37. Οι Σκοπιανοί το έριξαν για να μεταλλαχτούμε και να χάσουμε τα χαρακτηριστικά της Άρειας Φυλής των Μακεδωνόκαβλων.

    Μας ψεκάζουν με ΕΛΛΗΝΙΟΝ και ΜΑΚΕΔΟΝΙΟΝ!Αυξανει τον πατριωτισμο κατα 160%...Μεγαλωνει,μεγαλωνει γερα παιδια.

    Εσείς οι δυο όταν πάτε φαντάροι θα σας πάρουν στο πυροβολικό ΚΑΝΕΤΕ ΓΙΑ ΒΛΗΜΑΤΑ!

    ΑπάντησηΔιαγραφή
  38. Μπράβο ρε παιδιά να γελάμε κάνει καλό...
    Ασχετο: Τι ειναι ή τέλοσπάντων ποιοί είναι, ωρέ αδέλφια, οι Bloopers?

    ΑπάντησηΔιαγραφή
  39. Ο αλλος 8α μετρησει τον πουτσο του, εγω λεω να μετρησω την κωλοτρυπιδα του μαλακα που λεει αρχιδιες

    ΑπάντησηΔιαγραφή
  40. ρε παγάσα καψαμπέλη δεν βάζεις μυαλό! αν σου χώσουνε τώρα καμμιά μύνηση για πρόκληση πανικού κλπ
    ποίος θα φταίει;

    ΑπάντησηΔιαγραφή
  41. ΠΡΟΣ 7 Μάρτιος 2008 12:29 πμ
    Αγορι μου αν αυτοι ειναι Ελληνες του Καναδα...εγω θα βγω στη Συγγρου μαζι με το BABIS και θα κανω πιάτσα!
    Κοιτα εκει ...που κανεις μας δε θέλει να δει...και θα τους βρεις!! Μεσα στα σκατα...!

    ΑπάντησηΔιαγραφή
  42. Προς 12.29

    Απο οτι εχω αντιληφθει φιλε μου οι BLOOPERS (η κουτσουλιες αλλιως...η φασιστομπλογκαδες αλλιως) πιθανολογειτε οτι ειναι πολιτες μονιμοι κατοικοι ΠΛΑΝΗΤΗ ΑΡΗ..Εποικοι του πρωην ΠΑΣΟΚΙΣΤΑΝ και μελλοντικοι Κατοικοι ΤΗΣ ΤΣΙΠΡΑΣΙΑΣ!!!


    ΑΝ ΕΒΓΑΛΕΣ ΕΣΥ ΑΚΡΗ ΤΟΤΕ ΘΑ ΚΑΤΑΛΑΒΕΙΣ ΠΟΣΟ ΑΞΙΑ ΕΧΟΥΝ ΑΥΤΑ ΠΟΥ ΛΕΝΕ!!

    ΟΣΟ ΓΙΑ ΤΗΝ ΦΙΛΗ ΑΠΟ ΤΟΝ ΚΑΝΑΔΑ ΚΑΙ ΛΙΓΑ ΤΟΥΣ ΡΙΧΝΕΙ.

    ΕΓΩ ΤΟΥΣ ΣΥΜΒΟΥΛΕΥΩ ΤΑ ΒΡΑΚΑΚΙΑ ΝΑΝΑΙ ΜΠΕΤΟΝ ΑΡΜΕ!!

    ΑπάντησηΔιαγραφή
  43. Τα ΕΛΟΧΙΜ και τα ΝΕΦΕΛΙΜ
    τι είναι;

    ΑπάντησηΔιαγραφή
  44. Οιψεκασμοι γινονται απτα διαστημοπλοια των ΕΛ.Μπορειτε ναταναγνωρισετε απτην επιγραφη στο πισω μερος ¨ΜΠΑΜΠΑ ΜΗΝ ΤΡΕΧΕΙΣ¨

    ΑπάντησηΔιαγραφή
  45. Τελικά τα ΝΕΦΕΛΙΜ και τα ΕΛΟΧΙΜ
    ζουν ανάμεσά μας;

    ΑπάντησηΔιαγραφή
  46. Τι γνωριζετε για τα κοιτασματα ΚΛΑΝΙΟΥ που βρισκονται κατω απο το γηπεδο καραισκακη?

    ΑπάντησηΔιαγραφή
  47. Είναι γεγονός

    ΕΛΟΧΙΜ και ΝΕΦΕΛΙΜ αναρτούν, τον τελευταίο καιρό, κακόβουλα σχόλια στο press-gr!

    Πρόκειται για άλλοτε εξελιγμένους οργανισμούς που από την πόση ραδιενεργού πλουτωνίου 238 αλλά και τους συνεχείς ψεκασμούς μεταλλάχθηκαν σε....


    ΝΕΦΕΛΙΜ Νο02345

    ΑπάντησηΔιαγραφή
  48. εμένα πάντως μου φάνηκε πολύ χυδαίο το ύφος της ελληνοκαναδέζας, πολύ χάλια και επίσης, ...αν σταματήσουν να ανεβάζουν οι μπλούπερς σχόλια, θα πλήξω αφόρητα. είναι από τους λίγους που διαθέτουν ειρωνεία.

    ΑπάντησηΔιαγραφή
  49. Δηλαδή ο έλλην φασίστας ονομάζεται και blooper? Εγώ τους ξέρω ως γυφτοφασίστες διότι συνήθως τυγχάνουν σκούροι και τριχωτοί...υπάρχουν όμως και σοσιαλφασίστες (βλέπε πχ πολυζωγόπουλο κλπ) ή και κομμουνοφασίστες σαν την αγαπητή λιάνα που γνώρισε την αριστερά στα 50 της...Στα 70 θα γινει ΠΑΣΟΚ...ΧΙ ΧΙ

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  50. Είναι γεγονός

    ΕΛΟΧΙΜ και ΝΕΦΕΛΙΜ αναρτούν, τον τελευταίο καιρό, κακόβουλα σχόλια στο press-gr!

    Πρόκειται για άλλοτε εξελιγμένους οργανισμούς που από την πόση ραδιενεργού πλουτωνίου 238 αλλά και τους συνεχείς ψεκασμούς μεταλλάχθηκαν σε....


    ΝΕΦΕΛΙΜ Νο02345

    7 Μάρτιος 2008 1:05 πμ

    ===============================

    κατα την περίοδο της αναπαραγωγής,
    τα ΝΕΦΕΛΙΜ Νο02345
    εκδηλώνουν αξιοπερίεργες συμπεριφορές, όπως επιθετικότητα προς τα ΕΛΟΧΙΜ συγκεκριμένα,
    ψευδομετάλλαξη σε κοινωνικά όντα, κλπ.
    Αυτό που δεν είναι γνωστό, είναι πια συμπεριφορά εκδηλώνουν, όταν μετοικήσουν σε νεαρά ηλικία σε ψυχρότερα κλίματα απο εκείνα της αρχικής τους σύλληψης:
    Ερευνα υπο ανακοίνωση στο προσεχές συνέδριο , καταγράφει σημαντικές αυτιστικές συμπεριφορές τούτων των ΝΕΦΕΛΙΜ !

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  51. Τι μαλακες ειναι αυτοι?
    τελος παντων χωρις πλακα τωρα.
    Η κοπελια μου εχει μια φιλη που δουλευει στην ΕΥΔΑΠ και την πηρε σημερα το πρωι να της πει πως χθες το απογευμα εγινε μια μαλακια,κατι ριξανε που δε θα'πρεπε ή κατι που ριχνουμε τωρα το ριξανε σε μεγαλυτερες ποσοτητες,δεν καταλαβε η δικια μου και να πινουμε απο εμφιαλωμενα μεχρι να μας πει.
    Σοβαρα τωρα.

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  52. Στον 1.12

    ΜΙΑ ΧΑΡΑ ΤΟΥΣ ΤΑ ΡΙΧΝΕΙ ΤΟΥΣ ΨΕΥΤΟΜΑΓΚΕΣ ΕΞ ΑΠΟΣΤΕΩΣ

    ΑΣ ΕΡΘΟΥΝ ΕΔΩ ΤΑ ΚΟΛΩΠΑΙΔΑ ΝΑ ΔΟΥΝ ΠΩΣ ΠΑΙΡΝΑΕΙ Ο ΕΛΛΗΝΑΣ ΚΑΙ ΟΧΙ ΝΑ ΜΑΣ ΤΟ ΠΑΙΖΟΥΝ ΜΑΓΚΕΣ ΕΚ ΤΟΥ ΑΣΦΑΛΟΥΣ ΚΑΙ ΕΞ ΑΠΟΣΤΑΣΕΩΣ(ΤΟΡΟΝΤΟ ΚΑΝΑΔΑ)


    ΚΑΙ ΜΙΑ ΦΙΛΙΚΗ ΣΥΜΒΟΥΛΗ ΣΤΟΥΣ ΤΥΠΟΥΣ ΑΥΤΟΥΣ...ΚΑΛΥΤΕΡΑ ΤΑ ΒΡΑΚΑΚΙΑ ΤΟΥΣ ΝΑΝΑΙ ΜΠΕΤΟΝ ΑΡΜΕ

    ΜΟΝΟ ΕΤΣΙ ΘΑ ΤΗΝ ΒΓΑΛΟΥΝ ΚΑΘΑΡΗ.

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  53. Ean isxuei auto to pragma, kseroume poies perioxes pianei? Afora se oli tin Ellada?

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  54. Απο οτι εχω αντιληφθει φιλε μου οι BLOOPERS (η κουτσουλιες αλλιως...η φασιστομπλογκαδες αλλιως) πιθανολογειτε οτι ειναι πολιτες μονιμοι κατοικοι ΠΛΑΝΗΤΗ ΑΡΗ..Εποικοι του πρωην ΠΑΣΟΚΙΣΤΑΝ και μελλοντικοι Κατοικοι ΤΗΣ ΤΣΙΠΡΑΣΙΑΣ!!

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  55. ,κατι ριξανε που δε θα'πρεπε ή κατι που ριχνουμε τωρα το ριξανε σε μεγαλυτερες ποσοτητες,δεν καταλαβε η δικια μου και να πινουμε απο εμφιαλωμενα μεχρι να μας πει.
    --------------------------------
    Δεν είναι τίποτα τα κάτουρα από το Μόρνο προσπαθούν να διαλύσουν.

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  56. και βέβαια ποιός θα την έκανε την αρχιδιά? Ρουφιάνοι δημοσιογράφοι της έγκυρης πάντα espresso...:
    Παράξενη φημολογία περί μόλυνσης της λίμνης του Μαραθώνα με πλουτώνιο (!), που «περνάει» από στόμα σε στόμα και μεγαλώνει μέρα με την ημέρα, προβληματίζει τους υπευθύνους της ΕΥΔΑΠ, οι οποίοι τη διαψεύδουν κατηγορηματικά και συνιστούν ψυχραιμία στους καταναλωτές, οι οποίοι σπεύδουν να αγοράσουν εμφιαλωμένο νερό.

    Το σενάριο... επιστημονικής φαντασίας, που κυκλοφορεί τις τελευταίες δέκα ημέρες ακόμα και σε δημοσιογραφικά γραφεία, αφορά μία άνευ προηγούμενου δολιοφθορά κατά της χώρας μας, η οποία μάλιστα θα ήταν ικανή να χαρακτηριστεί αιτία πολέμου! Η «απόρρητη πληροφορία» αφορά δήθεν μόλυνση στη λίμνη του Μαραθώνα με πλουτώνιο που έριξαν Σκοπιανοί κατάσκοποι κι ως εκ τούτου ειδικοί... κατασκοπολόγοι συμβουλεύουν τον κόσμο να μην πίνει νερό από τη βρύση τις επόμενες ημέρες!

    «Τα εργαστήρια της ΕΥΔΑΠ είναι από τα πλέον σύγχρονα που έχουμε στην Ελλάδα. Το νερό που πίνουμε “σαρώνεται” από εκατοντάδες έλεγχους και κάτι τέτοιο θα ήταν αδύνατον να συμβεί χωρίς να το γνωρίζουν οι εξειδικευμένοι επιστήμονες της εταιρείας. Τα αποτελέσματα των ελέγχων στέλνονται στο υπουργείο Υγείας. Το νερό είναι πεντακάθαρο» λέει στην «Espresso» ο υπεύθυνος του γραφείου τύπου της ΕΥΔΑΠ Γιάννης Στεβής.

    Για άσχημη φάρσα που στόχο έχει να προκαλέσει σύγχυση και πανικό κάνει λόγο και ο χημικός Νίκος Κατσαρός, ο οποίος διευκρινίζει ότι το πλουτώνιο δεν κυκλοφορεί στην αγορά και για να το χρησιμοποιήσει κανείς πρέπει να διαθέτει σύγχρονα εργαστήρια, τεχνογνωσία και υψηλή τεχνολογία: «Αυτά είναι αστεία πράγματα. Οι έλεγχοι της ΕΥΔΑΠ είναι οι πιο αυστηροί που γίνονται στη χώρα μας. Αφορούν το πολυτιμότερο αγαθό κοινής ωφέλειας, το νερό. Γι’ αυτό ο κόσμος δεν πρέπει να πανικοβάλλεται».

    Η ΕΥΔΑΠ παρακολουθεί με προσοχή τη φημολογία και προς το παρόν δεν κρίνει σκόπιμο να εκδώσει σχετική ανακοίνωση προς το καταναλωτικό κοινό.

    espressonews.gr

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  57. Ρε γαμώ την τρέλα μου πως το αποκλείετε; Έχετε στοιχεία; Όσοι τον βρίζετε σας εύχομαι να είστε στο νοσοκομείο αύριο από το πλουτώνιο. Όσοι βρίζετε χωρίς στοιχεία είστε ΖΩΑ. Οι άλλοι που έχετε στοιχεία μπορείτε να μας τα πείτε. Εξάλλου ο άνθρωπος μιλάει επωνύμως.

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  58. eiste gia ton poutso kavala...xaxaxaxaxaxaxaxaxaxaxaxaa

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  59. ti mathainw?

    ta skoupidia stous dromous gia 5 meres?

    http://www.cosmo.gr/News/Hellas/190500.html

    otan teleiwsei ki auti i apergia na kseplunoume tous dromous me to ploutwnio na katharisoun

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  60. Ρε σεις… πουλάει κανείς ρίγανη από τα ζωνιανα??????????

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  61. kala re paidi mou 7 Μάρτιος 2008 1:51 πμ, den apokleiei kaneis na exei ginei kamia malakia kai na exei molunthei to nero, alla ploutwnio? PLOUTWNIO?

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  62. otan teleiwsei ki auti i apergia na kseplunoume tous dromous me to ploutwnio na katharisoun

    είσαι γίγαντας!

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  63. Ο 1:43 μου θυμιζει το δημοσιευμα της περασμενης δεκετιας απο φασιστικη σκουπιδοεφημεριδα για ελληνιδα που βιαζοταν αν χορω απο σκοπιανους μπροστα στα ματια του αρραβονιαστικου της..Ρε κοψτε την προπαγανδα επιτελους!Τι νομιζετε πως ειναι το ουρανιο κανα ισοτονικο ποτο?

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  64. Emena me plhroforhse h theia mou oti rixane sto nero sto marathwna KRYPTONITH alla to ekanan epithdes gia na ginoume oloi SUPERMAN

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  65. θα παρακαλούσα όποιος έχει φωτογραφία κοντινή που να δείχνει πως είναι το πλουτώνιο να την ανεβάσει στο ιντερνετ . θέλω να γνωρίζω όταν μαζί με το νερό πεταχτεί κάτι από τη βρύση εάν είναι πλουτώνιο ή κουράδες από την Υλίκη.

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  66. Το νερο παντως που πινει ο babis ειναι μαλλον μολυσμενο με πουστρονιο 642

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  67. Paidia xwris plaka, prepei na alitheuei auto me to ploutwnio.

    Afou autos o ntavatzis o xman den exei petaksei spamaki edw pera akomi, mallon exei katanalwsei megali posotita ploutwnismenou nerou kai exei tezarei.

    Na prosexete.
    Gigantissa

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  68. καλα μιλαμε, πολυ καλο αυτο με την "ριγανη απο τα ζωνιανια" που εγραψε ενας φιλος παραπανω...

    και οσον αφορα στο πλουτονιασμενο νερο, εχω να σας πω οτι ενας κολλητους του ξαδερφου μου, του οποιου ο κουμπαρος εργαζεται στην ΔΕΗ, αλλα εχει και ενα αδερφο που δεν καταφερε να τον βολεψει το ΠΑΣΟΚ στην ΔΕΗ και τελικα βρεθηκε μια θεση στον ΟΤΕ, οπου εκει εναι φιλος με μια κοπέλα, την Χαρά, που ο αδερφος της ειναι χρόνια εργαζόμενος και ΑΡΧΙΔΙσυνδικαλιστής στην ΕΥΔΑΠ, μας ειπε λοιπον οτι το νερό καθε μέρα χάλια ειναι, λίγο πλουτόνιο πάνω λίγο κάτω δεν βλάπτει.. εξάλλου πως το ξέρετε εσείς οτι το πλουτόνιο δεν κάνει καλό στην χώνεψη?

    -partyman

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  69. Ρε μαλάκα μη πίνεις τα χύσια της θείας σου

    Τα χύσια των γριών έχουν ακριβώς την ίδια γεύση όπως αυτή του νερού με πλουτώνιο

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  70. Παντε εδω
    http://www.tanea.gr/SectionList.aspx?d=20061209&nid=2947977&sn=&spid=876
    εδω
    http://www.tanea.gr//Article.aspx?d=20061209&nid=2948625&sn=&spid=

    και εδω
    http://www.hri.org/E/2001/01-02-01.dir/keimena/greece/greece1.htm

    αναφερεται οτι η Ελλαδα ειναι χωρα παρανομης διακινησης πλουτωνιου προς αλλα κρατη.

    Ακουγεται σαν σεναριο επιστημονικης φαντασιας αλλα μπορει οντως καποια στραβη να εγινε με καποιο επικινδυνο στοιχειο που διερευσε στο νερο και απλα απο στομα σε στομα η ιστορια διαστρεβλωθηκε.

    Μπορει παλι να φταινε οι εταιριες εμφιαλωσεως που θελουν να αυξησουν τις πωλησεις τους και κανουν προπαγανδα.

    Το πλουτωνιο ειναι πολυ ακριβο στοιχειο για να το πετας στο νερο,εκτος κι αν το κανεις σκοπιμα. Τοτε ομως μιλαμε για τρομοκρατια. Χρησιμοποιειται στους πυρηνικους αντιδραστηρες για την παραγωγη πυρηνικης ενεργειας. Ενα γραμμαριο κοστιζει 50000ευρω περιπου και ειναι δισευρετο. Επισης ειναι πολυ τοξικο και εκεινος ο Ρωσος κατασκοπος που δολοφονηθηκε(;) μεσα στο αεροπλανο της british airways περυσι απο πλουτωνιο πεθανε.

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  71. αυτη η σπουδαγμενη απ το τοροντο εχει κανει και νταλικιερης?

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  72. O ARWNHS EINAI EBRAIOS??

    O ARWNHS EINAI EBRAIOS??


    O ARWNHS EINAI EBRAIOS??

    O ARWNHS EINAI EBRAIOS??


    O ARWNHS EINAI EBRAIOS??
    O ARWNHS EINAI EBRAIOS??

    O ARWNHS EINAI EBRAIOS??



    O ARWNHS EINAI EBRAIOS??


    O ARWNHS EINAI EBRAIOS??



    O ARWNHS EINAI EBRAIOS??

    O ARWNHS EINAI EBRAIOS??
    O ARWNHS EINAI EBRAIOS??

    O ARWNHS EINAI EBRAIOS??

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  73. Προς ανώνυμο 3:45 πμ
    .......................

    Φίλε ο Ρώσος πέθανε από Πολώνιο

    και όχι Πλουτώνιο.

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  74. παιδια εγώ το ακουσα απο υπαλληλο της
    ΕΥΔΑΠ,δεν θυμαμαι το στοιχειο, παντως
    δεν μου μιλησε για πλουτωνιο, μου ειπε οτι υπεβαλαν εγγραφη αναφορα και οτι ως τη Κυριακη θα το έχουν καθαρισει...
    Αυτα μου ειπε αυτα σας λέω. Εγω για καλο και για κακο δεν θα δινω απο τη βρυση στο παιδι μου και το ιδιο συμβουλεψα χθες(Πεμπτη 6/3) συγγενεις
    και φιλους,αλλωστε γι' αυτό μπηκα στο blog, για να δω αν υπάρχει αναφορα σχετικα.
    Υ.Γ.
    Κουλαρετε λιγο με τα μπινελικια ρε
    παιδια, εγραψε κατι αυτός ο Αρωνης
    και δεν υπαρχει σχολιο που να μην
    τον στολιζει κανονικα, υποθετω οτι
    το προδοτικο κατασκευασμα ακριβως
    απο κατω (το αγγλικο) βαρεθηκατε να το διαβασετε γιατι μονο 1-2 σχολια ειδα γι αυτο

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  75. ΝΑ ΣΒΗΣΤΕΙ ΤΟ ΑΓΓΛΙΚΟ ΣΧΟΛΙΟ ΑΠΟ ΤΟ BLOG
    ΤΩΡΑ!!!

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  76. Τα καλύτερα σχόλια τα οποία έχω διαβάσει!
    Συγχαρητίρια σε όλους για το χιούμορ!
    Μακάρι έτσι πάντα ρε παιδιά, να γελάσει το χειλάκι μας!

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  77. Παντως εσυ δεν πρεπει να εχεις διαβασει και παρα πολυ στη ζωη σου...
    Τα..."Συγχαρητίρια" μου
    επισης

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  78. Φίλε των 12.15

    Επρεπε να σε ενοχλήσει περισσότερο το αισχρό προπαγανδιστικό περιεχόμενο του εν λόγω "σεντονιού" κατά της Ελλάδας, με ολίγα στοιχεία να σε κάψω Γιάννη να σ' αλείψω λάδι, για να γίνει πιο "εύπεπτο", παρά ο άλλος που μας είπε ότι του είπε η θεία του ότι οι βρύσες τρέχουν πυρηνικά απόβλητα και μας έκανε από το πρωί να κλαίμε από τα γέλια...

    Διέτρεξε ολόκληρη την πορεία μας στην ιστορία, έδωσε σκοπίμως παραπλανητικά στοιχεία για την προέλευση του ονόματός μας, και έφτασε να περιγράψει μέχρι πόσο στρατό διαθέτουμε, ποιο είναι το ηθικό του στρατεύματος και η οικονομική κατάσταση της χώρας!

    Ανέλυσε όλα τα προτερήματα της Ελληνικής φυλής, φροντίζοντας όμως συγχρόνως να πετάξει σκόρπια στο κείμενο τις βλακώδεις εμμονές μας και τα... κεκτημένα τάχα "εθνικά δικαιώματα" που έχουν οι Σλάβοι, οι Βλάχοι και οι Αλβανοί, οι οποίοι κατοικούν εδώ και αιώνες σε συγκεκριμένες περιοχές της Ελλάδας! Ανέβασε βεβαίως την ύποπτη προπαγάνδα του στα Αγγλικά και σαν σχόλιο μιας παπ...άς για το πλουτώνιο, ώστε να φτάσει καλύτερα και με ασφάλεια στον προορισμό του.

    Νομίζω ότι τέτοιου είδους κείμενα πρέπει να ελέγχονται από τον ή τους διαχειριστές του press-gr και να διαγράφονται. Πρέπει να υπάρχει αυτή η δυνατότητα.

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  79. Αφού το είπε η θεία σου Γιώργο ... έτσι θα είναι !!! Το άλλο με τον Τοττό σου το είπε ?

    http://liondani.blogspot.com/

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  80. i lisi einai mia
    www.reverseosmosis.gr
    min kourazestai allo me to nero.

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  81. ΟΧΙ ΣΤΑ ΝΑΡΚΩΤΙΚΑ !!!
    (δεν φτάνουν για όλους!)

    ...και άντε, λέμε, έπεσε το Πλουτώνιο στο νερό τής Θειάς σου...
    Η ΕΥΔΑΠ, με ποιό τρόπο θα το καθαρίσει ? Με το ARIEL τής Θειάς σου ?

    (Δηλαδή τώρα η θειά σου είναι εμπλουτισμένη ? Κυκλοφορεί με γειωμένη μολυβδούχα κυλότα?)

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  82. ΜΠΟΡΕΙ ΝΑ ΤΕΛΕΙΩΝΕΙ ΕΠΙΤΕΛΟΥΣ ΑΥΤΗ Η ΣΥΓΚΛΟΝΙΣΤΙΚΗ ΜΑΛΑΚΙΑ!!!!!!!!!!!!


    ΕΧΕΙ ΤΕΡΑΣΤΙΑ ΕΥΘΥΝΗ Ο ΔΙΑΧΕΙΡΙΣΤΗΣ ΤΟΥ PRESS-GR Ο ΟΠΟΙΟΣ ΑΝΕΒΑΣΕ ΣΤΗΝ ΚΕΝΤΡΙΚΗ ΣΕΛΙΔΑ ΜΙΑ ΤΕΤΟΙΑ ΕΙΔΗΣΗ.


    ΚΑΙ ΜΗΝ ΑΚΟΥΩ ΠΑΠΑΡΙΕΣ ΓΙΑ "ΓΙΩΡΓΟ ΑΡΩΝΗ" ΚΑΙ ΕΠΩΝΥΜΕΣ ΚΑΤΑΓΓΕΛΙΕΣ. ΝΑ ΜΑΣ ΔΩΣΕΙ Ο ΓΙΩΡΓΟΣ ΑΡΩΝΗΣ ΤΟ ΑΔΤ ΤΟΥ ΚΑΙ ΤΗ ΔΙΕΥΘΥΝΣΗ ΤΟΥ, ΑΛΛΙΩΣ ΤΟ 100% ΤΗΣ ΕΥΘΥΝΗΣ ΓΙΑ ΤΗ ΔΗΜΟΣΙΕΥΣΗ ΦΕΡΕΙ Ο ΔΙΑΧΕΙΡΙΣΤΗΣ ΤΟΥ PRESS-GR.

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